We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Editor in Chief: Eric M. Meyers

A joint effort between Oxford University Press and the renowned American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East was designed to provide the most comprehensive current reference to this growing area of study. While offering extensive coverage of the archaeology of the biblical world, the entries also pay particular attention to the overlapping of the fields of archaeology and biblical studies, including the investigation of over 450 archaeological sites.

With 1,100 entries written by 560 contributors from more than two dozen countries, the scope of the encyclopedia is wide and provides a full range of perspectives and approaches to archaeological endeavors. Articles span from Bahrain to Libraries and Archives to Ziggurats and offer cultural, historical, and religious perspectives to a wide range of topics of interest to both scholars and lay people.

Published by Oxford University Press, 1996.


Table of Contents

A – B | C – E | F – H | I – L | M – N | O – Q | R – S | T – Z

A – B

῾Abbasid Caliphate
Abel, Félix-Marie
Abila
Abu Ḥamid, Tell
Abu Hawam, Tell
Abu Salabikh
Abu Simbel
Abydos
Achziv
Adab
Aden
Adulis
Aegean Islands
Agriculture
Aharoni, Yohanan
Ahiram Inscription
Ai
῾Ain Dara῾
῾Ain Es-Samiyeh
῾Ain Ghazal
῾Ajjul, Tell EL-
῾Ajlun
Akkade
Akkadian
Akkadians
Akko
Alalakh
Alalakh Texts
Albright, William Foxwell
Albright Institute of Archaeological Research
Aleppo
Alexandria
Alexandrian Empire
Ali Kosh
Alphabet
Alt, Albrecht
Altars
Amarna, Tell El-
Amarna Tablets
Amathus
American Center of Oriental Research
American Institute for Maghreb Studies
American Institute for Yemeni Studies
American Institute of Iranian Studies
American Palestine Exploration Society
American Research Center in Egypt
American Research Institute in Turkey
American School of Oriental Research in Baghdad
American Schools of Oriental Research
Amman
Amman Airport Temple
Ammon
Ammonite Inscriptions
Amorites
῾Amrit
Amulets
῾Amuq
Anafa, Tel
Analytical Techniques
Anatolia
Anchors
Andrae, Walter
Animal Husbandry
῾Anjar
Antioch on Orontes
Apamea
Aphek
Aphrodisias
Apliki
῾Aqaba
῾Aqar Quf
Aqueducts
Arabian Peninsula
Arabic
Arad
Arad Inscriptions
῾Ara῾ir
Aramaic Language and Literature
Arameans
Archaeological Institute of America
Arches
Architectural Decoration
Architectural Drafting and Drawing
Architectural orders
Armenia
Armenian
῾Aro῾er
Arslantepe
Artifact Conservation
Artifact Drafting and Drawing
Arwad
Art Sites
Ashdod
Ashkelon
Assos
Aššur
Assyrians
Asyut
῾Atlit Ram
Avdat
Avigad, Nahman
Avi-Yonah, Michael
Axum
Ayyubid-Mamluk Dynasties
῾Azekah
Azraq
Baalbek
Bab Edh-Dhra῾
Babylon
Babylonians
Badè, William Frederic
Badiat Ash-Sham
Bagatti, Bellarmino
Baghdad
Bahrain
Balawat
Balk
Balu῾
Banias
Baptisteries
Baq῾ah Valley
Bar῾am
Baramki, Dimitri Constantine
Bar Kokhba Revolt
Barrois, Augustin Georges
Basilicas
Bassit
Basta
Batash, Tel
Baths
Be' er Resisim
Beersheba
Beidha
Beirut
Beit Mirsim, Tell
Beit Ras
Bennett, Crystal-Margaret
Benzinger, Immanuel
Beth Alpha
Bethel
Beth-Gan
Bethlehem
Bethsaida
Beth-Shean
Beth-She῾arim
Beth-Shemesh
Beth-YeraḤ
Beth-Zur
Biblical Archaeology
Biblical Literature
Biblical Temple
Bisitun
Blegen, Carl William
Bliss, Frederick Jones
Boğazköy
Bone, Ivory, and Shell
Bosra
Botta, Paul-émile
Bouqras
Brak, Tell
Breasted, James Henry
British Institute at amman for Archaeology and History
British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara
British Institute of Persian Studies
British School of Archaeology in Egypt
British School of Archaeology in Iraq
British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem
Building Materials and Techniques
Bull Site
Burial Sites
Burial Techniques
Burrows, Millar
Buseirah
Butler, Howard Crosby
Byblos
Byzantine Empire

Back to top

C – E

Caesarea
Cario
Callaway, Joseph Atlee
Camels
Canaan
Canaanites
Cape Gelidonya
Capernaum
Cappadocia
Caravanserais
Carchemish
Carmel Caves
Carter, Howard
Carthage
Carts
Catacombs
Çatal Höyük
Caton-Thompson, Gertrude
Cats
Cattle and Oxen
Cave Tombs
Çayönü
Central Moab
Ceramic Ethnoarchaeology
Ceramics
Cereals
Chalcedon
Chaldeans
Champollion, Jean FranÇois
Chariots
Chogha Zanbil
Chorazin
Chuera, Tell
Churches
Church Inscriptions
Cilicia
Cimmerians
Cisterns
Cist Graves
Cities
Clermont-Ganneau, Charles
Climatology
Clothing
Codex
Coele-Syria
Coins
Colonization
Computer Mapping
Computer Recording, Analysis, and Interpretation
Conder, Claude Reignier
Conservation Archaeology
Constantinople
Copper Scroll
Coptic
Corbo, Virgilio C.
Cosmetics
Council of American Overseas Research Centers
Creswell, Keppel Archibald Cameron
Crete
Crowfoot, John Winter
Crusader Period
Ctesiphon
Cult
Cuneiform
Cyprus
Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute
Cyrene
Dab῾a, Tell Ed-
Daliyeh, Wadi Ed-
Dalman, Gustaf
Damascus
Damascus Document
Dan
Darb Zubaydah
Dating Techniques
DCP Spectrometry
Dead Sea Scrolls
Decapolis
Decipherment
Dedan
Deh Luran
Deir ῾Alla Inscriptions
Deir ῾Alla, Tell
Deir el-Balaḣ
Delta
Demography
Denon, Dominique Vivant
Der, Tell ED-
Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft
Deutscher Palästina- Verein
Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Abteilung Damaskus
Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Abteilung Istanbul
Deutsches Evangelisches Institut Für Altertumswissenschaft Des Heiligen Landes
Development and Archaeology
Dhra῾
Dibon
Di Cesnola, Luigi Palma
Didyma
Dikaios, Porphyrios
Dilmun
Diyala
Dogs
Dolmen
Dor
Dothan
Douara
Dunand, Maurice
Dunayevsky, Immanuel
Dura-Europos
Dussaud, René
Ebal, Mount
Ebla
Eblaites
Ebla Texts
Ecbatana
École Biblique et Archéologique Française
Edom
Egypt
Egypt Exploration Society
Egyptian
Egyptian Aramaic Texts
῾Einan
῾Ein-Besor
῾Ein-Boqeq
῾Ein-Gedi
῾Ein-Gev
῾Ein-Shadud
῾Ein-YA' el
῾Ein-Zippori, Tel
Elamites
Elephantine
Emar
Emar Texts
Emmaus
Enkomi
Environmental Archaeology
Ephesus
Equids
῾Erani, Tel
Eridu
Erman, Adolf
Esdar, Tel
Eshmunazar Inscription
Eshnunna
Eski Mosul Dam Salvage Project
Essenes
Ethics and Archaeology
Ethiopia
Ethiopic
Ethnoarchaeology
Ethnobotany
Ethnozoology
Eugenics Movement
Euphrates
Euphrates Dams, Survey of
Evans, Arthur
Excavation Strategy
Excavation Tools
Experimental Archaeology

Back to top

F – H

Failaka
Faiyum
Fakhariyah, Tell
Fakhariyah Aramaic Inscription
Fara
Far῾ah, Tell el-
Far῾ah, Tell El-
Faris, Khirbet
Farmsteads
Fatimid Dynasty
Feinan
Field Conservation
Field, Henry
First Jewish Revolt
Fisher, Clarence Stanley
Fishing
Food Storage
Fortifications
Foundation Trench
Four-Room House
Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land
Frankfort, Henri
French Archaeological Missions
Ful, Tell El-
Funerary Monuments
Furniture and Furnishings
Furtwängler, Adolf
Fustat
Galilee
Galilee Boat
Galling, Kurt
Games
Gamla
Gardens
Garrod, Dorothy Annie Elizabeth
Garstang, John
Genesis Apocryphon
Geology
Gerisa, Tel
Gezer
Gezer Calendar
Ghirshman, Roman
Ghrubba
Gibeon
Gilat
Gilead
Giloh
Girsu and Lagash
Giza
Gjerstad, Einar
Glass
Glueck, Nelson
Godin Tepe
Golan
Goldman, Hetty
Göltepe
Gordion
Granaries and Silos
Grave Goods
Greek
Greenfield, Jonas Carl
Grid Plan
Guérin, Victor Honoré
Gush Ḥalav
Guy, Philip Langstaffe Orde
Habakkuk Commentary
Habuba Kabira
Hacilar
Hadar
Hadar, Tel
Ḥadhramaut
Hadidi, Tell
Haft Tepe
Hajar Bin Ḥumeid
Hajji Firuz
Hala Sultan Tekke
Ḥalaf, Tell
Halikarnassos
Ḥaluṣa
Hama
Ḥammath-Gader
Hammath Tiberias
Hamrin Dam Salvage Project
Harding, Gerald Lankester
Haror, Tel
Harṭ;uv
Hasa, Wadi El-
Hasanlu
Hasmoneans
Hassuna
Hatra
Hatra Inscriptions
Hayonim
Ḥayyat, Tell El-
Hazor
Hebrew Language and Literature
Hebron
Heinrich, Ernst
Heliopolis
Hermon, Mount
Herodian Jericho
Herodium
Ḥesban
Ḥesi, Tell El-
Hieroglyphs
Hilprecht, Hermann Vollrat
Ḥimyar
Historical Archaeology
Historical Geography
Historiography
History of the Field
Hittite
Hittites
Hogarth, David George
Homs
Horsfield, George
House
House Churches
Ḥumeima
Hunting
Ḥureidha
Hurrian
Hurrians
Hydraulics
Hydrology
Hyksos

Back to top

I – L

Idalion
Ideology and Archaeology
Idumeans
Iktanu, Tell
Imperial Aramaic
Incense
Indo-European Languages
Inscriptions
Inscription Sites
Institute of Holy Land Studies
Institut Français D'archéologie du Proche Orient
Institut Français D'archéologie Orientale
Institut Français d'études Anatoliennes D' Istanbul
Institut Français d'études Arabes
῾Ira, Tel
῾Iraq el-Amir
Irbid
Irrigation
Isfahan
ISIN
Iskander, Khirbet
Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Exploration Society
Israelites
Istituto Italiano per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente
῾Izbet ṣarṭ ah
Izeh
Jacobsen, Thorkild
Jaffa
Jar Burials
Jarmo
Jawa
Jebel Qa῾Aqir
Jemdet Nasr
Jemmeh, Tell
Jerash
Jerba
Jericho
Jerusalem
Jewelry
Jezreel, Tel
Jilat, Wadi El-
Jordan Valley
Jotapata
Jubah, Wadi Al-
Judah
Judean Desert Caves
Judeideh, Tell El-
Kabri, Tel
Kafranja, Wadi
Kalavasos
Kamid El-Loz
Kaneš
Karatepe Phoenician Inscriptions
Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta
Kassites
Kazel, Tell Al-
Kefar Ḥananyah
Keisan, Tell
Kenyon, Kathleen Mary
Kerak
KESTEL
Ketef Hinnom
Khabur
Khafajeh
Khaldeh
Khawlan aṭ-ṭ iyal
Kheleifeh, Tell El-
Khirbeh
Khorsabad
Kish
Kitan, Tel
Kitchener, Horatio Herbert
Kition
Koldewey, Robert
Kosay, Hamit Zübeyr
Kourion
Kraeling, Carl Hermann
Ksar 'Akil
Kültepe Texts
Kuntillet ῾Ajrud
Kurnub
Kursi
Kuwait
Lachish
Lachish Inscriptions
Lagrange, Marie-Joseph
Lahav
Lamps
LAPITHOS
Lapp, Paul Wilbert
Larsa
LATAMNE
LATIN
Lawrence, Thomas Edward
Layard, Austen Henry
Lead Isotope Analysis
Leather
Lehun
Leilan, Tell
Leptis Magna
Levant
Levi Della Vida, Giorgio
Libraries and Archives
Libya
Limes Arabicus
Lions
Literacy
Lithics
Lloyd, Seton Howard Frederick
Locus
Lower Egypt
Luwians
Lycia

Back to top

M – N

Ma῾agan Mikha' el
Macalister, Robert Alexander Stewart
Machaerus
Mackenzie, Duncan
Madaba
Mafjar, Khirbat Al-
Magdala
Magnetic Archaeometry
Mallon, Alexis
Mallowan, Max Edgar Lucien
Malta
Ma῾lula
Malyan
Manbij
Mandiac
Mareshah
Mari
Marib
Mariette, Auguste
Mari Texts
Marlik
Marquet-Krause, Judith
Marseille Tariff
Martyrion
MASADA
MASHKAN-SHAPIR
Maskhuta, Tell El-
Masos, Tel
Maspero, Gaston
Maṭ ara
Mataria Boat
Mausoleum
Mazar, Benjamin
Mazar, Tell El-
Mcfadden, George
Mecca
Meda' in saleh
Medeineh, Khirbet el-
Medes
Medicine
Medina
Megiddo
Meiron
Memphis
Merimde
Meroë
Merrill, Selah
Meṣad Ḥashavyahu
Meṣad Ḥashavyahu Texts
Mesopotamia
Metals
Michal, Tel
Microscopy
Middle East Medievalists
Middle East Studies Association
Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan
Midian
Miletus
Minoans
Miqne, Tel
Mishrifeh
Mitanni
Moab
Moabite Stone
Mocha
Monasteries
Montet, Pierre
Montgomery, James Alan
Moortgat, Anton
Mor, Tel
Mosaics
Mosque
Mosque Inscriptions
Mozan, Tell
MunḤata
Munsell Chart
Murabba῾at
Mureybet
Murray, Margaret Alice
Museums and Museology
Musical Instruments
Myres, John L.
Nabatean Inscriptions
Nabateans
Nabratein
Nag Hammadi
Naḥal Oren
Najran
Names and Naming
Nami, Tel
Naqada
Naqsh-I Rustam
Naṣbeh, Tell En-
Nationalism and Archaeology
Naukratis
Naville, Édouard
Nazareth
Nebi Mend, Tell
Nebo, Mount
Necropolis
Nederlands Historisch-Archeologisch Instituut te Istanbul
Negev
Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology
Nemrud Daği
Neo-Hittites
Nerab Inscriptions
Neṣṣana
Neutron Activation Analysis
Neuville, René
Nevali Çori
New Archaeology
Newton, Charles Thomas
Nicolaou, Kyriakos
Nile
Nimrin, Tell
Nimrud
Nineveh
Nippur
Nishapur
Nitria
North Africa
Northern Samaria, Survey of
Northwest Semitic Seal Inscriptions
Noth, Martin
Nubia
Nuzi

Back to top

O – Q

Odeum
Ohnefalsch-Richter, Max
Olives
Oman
Ossuary
Osten, Hans Henning Erimar von Der
Ostracon
'Oueili, Tell el'
Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus Papyri
Palace
Paleobotany
Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction
Paleopathology
Paleozoology
Palestine
Palestine Exploration Fund
Palestine Oriental Society
Palestinian Aramaic
Palmer, Edward Henry
Palmyra
Palmyrene Inscriptions
Paphos
Papyrus
Parchment
Parrot, André
Parthians
Pasargadae
Pastoral Nomadism
Pella
Pergamon
Periodical Literature
Periodization
Peristyle House
Persepolis
Persia
Persian
Persians
Personal Hygiene
Peters, John Punnett
Petra
Petrie, William Matthew Flinders
Petrography
Philistines
Phillips, Wendell
Phoenicia
Phoenician-Punic
Phoenicians
Photography
Pigs
Pit Graves
Poidebard, R. P. Antoine
Pools
Priene
Proto-Canaanite
Proto-Sinaitic
Ptolemais
Ptolemies
Public Buildings
Pyramids
Qadesh-Barnea
Qal῾at Al-Bahrain
Qal῾at Sim῾an
Qarqur, Tell
Qaryat Al-Fau
Qasile, Tell
Qaṣr Al-Ḥallabat
Qaṣr Al-Ḥayr Al-Gharbi
Qaṣr Al-Ḥayr Ash-Sharqi
Qaṣr Al-Meshatta
Qaṣr Burqu῾
Qaṣrin
Qataban
Qatar
Qinnishrin
Qiri, Tel
Qitar, El-
Qitmit, Ḥorvat
Qom, Khirbet El-
Quadrant Plan
Qumran
Qurayyah
Quṣayr ῾Amra

Back to top

R – S

Rabud, Khirbet
Radannah
Ramat Raḥel
Ramla
Raqqa, Ar-
Ra's Al-hadd
Ras En-Naqb
Ras Ibn Hani
Ras, Tell er-
Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke
Recording Techniques
Reference Works
ReḤovot
Reisner, George Andrew
Renan, Joseph Ernest
Reservoirs
Resistivity
Restoration and Conservation
Rifa῾at, Tell
Rimah, Tell Er-
Ritual Baths
Roads
Robinson, Edward
Roman Empire
Rowe, Alan
Rujm El-Hiri
Rule of the Community
Rumeith, Tell Er-
Rusafa
Safaitic-Thamudic Inscriptions
Safar, Fuad
Ṣafuṭ, Tell
Saḥab
Sa῾idiyeh, Tell Es-
Said Naya
Salamis
Saller, Sylvester John
Salt
Salvage Excavation
Samaria
Samaria Ostraca
Samaritans
Samarra
Samosata
San῾a
Sanidha
Saqqara
Sarcophagus
Sardinia
Sardis
Sarepta
Sarre, Friedrich
Sasanians
Saulcy, Félicien de
Sauvaget, Jean
Schaeffer, Claude F.-A.
Schick, Conrad
Schliemann, Heinrich
Schlumberger, Daniel
Schröder, Paul G. A.
Schumacher, Gottlieb
Scribes and Scribal Techniques
Scroll
Scythians
Seafaring
Seals
Sefire Aramaic Inscriptions
Seleucia on the Tigris
Seleucids
Sellin, Ernst
Semitic Languages
Sepphoris
Sera῾, Tel
Serçe Limani
Sergilla
Settlement Patterns
Sewers
Seyrig, Henri
Seytan Deresi
Sha῾ar Ha-Golan
Shabwa
Shaft Tombs
Shanidar Cave
Shavei-Zion
Sheba
Shechem
Sheep and Goats
Sheikh Ḥamad, Tell
Shema῾, Khirbet
Shfifonim
Shiloh
Shiloh, Yigal
Ships and Boats
Shiqmim
Shiqmona
Shu῾eib, Wadi
Sidon
Siloam Tunnel Inscription
Sinai
Sippar
Site Survey
Skeletal Analysis
Smith, George Adam
Society of Biblical Literature
Sohar
Soloi
Soundings
South Arabian
Southeast Dead Sea Plain
Southern Ghors and Northeast ῾Arabah
Southern Samaria, Survey Of
Spectroscopy
Speiser, Ephraim Avigdor
Stables
Stadiums
Stanhope, Hester Lucy
Starcky, Jean
Starkey, James L.
Statistical Applications
Stekelis, Moshe
Stelae
Stewart, James Rivers Barrington
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Subeita
Sukas, Tell
Sukenik, Eleazar Lipa
Sumerian
Sumerians
Survey, Archaeological
Survey of Israel
Susa
Susiya
Suweida
Synagogue Inscriptions
Synagogues
Syria
Syriac
Syria-Palestine

Back to top

T – Z

Ta῾anach
Tabgha
Tablet
Tabor, Mount
Tabun
Tannur, Khirbet Et-
Taurus Mountains
Tawilan
Taya, Tell
Tayma'
Teleilat El-Ghassul
Tell
Temple Scroll
Temples
Tents
Tepe Farukhabad
Tepe Gawra
Tepe Mussian
Tepe Yahya
Terqa
Textiles
Thaj
Thayer, Joseph Henry
Theaters
Thureau-Dangin, FranÇois
Tiberias
Tigris
Til Barsip
Tile
Timna῾
Timna῾
Tombs
Tourism and Archaeology
Transjordan
Transportation
Tufnell, Olga
Tumulus
Turville-Petre, Francis
Tyana
Tyre
Ubaid
Ubar
῾Ubeidiya
Ugarit
Ugaritic
Ugarit Inscriptions
Uluburun
Umayyad Caliphate
῾Umeiri, Tell El-
Umm El- Biyara
Umm El- Jimal
Umm er-Rasas
Umm Qeis
Undersea Exploration Society of Israel
Underwater Archaeology
United Arab Emirates
Upper Egypt
Ur
Urartu
Uruk-Warka
Vaux, Roland De
Villa
Villages
Vincent, Louis-Hugues
Virolleaud, Charles
Viticulture
Vitreous Materials
Vogüé, Melchior de
Vouni
Vounous
Wall Paintings
Warren, Charles
War Scroll
Water Tunnels
Watzinger, Carl
Wawiyat, Tell El-
Weapons and Warfare
Weights and Measures
Weill, Raymond
Wheel
Wheeler, Mortimer
Wilson, Charles William
Winnett, Frederick Victor
Wood
Woolley, C. Leonard
Wright, George Ernest
Writing and Writing Systems
Writing Materials
X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
Yabis, Wadi El-
Yadin, Yigael
Yahudiyeh, Tell el-
Yarmut, Tel
Yassiada Wrecks
Yavneh-Yam
Yeivin, Shmuel
Yemen
YiftaḤel
Yin῾am, Tel
Yoqne῾am
Zabid
Ẓafar
Zakkur Inscription
Zeraqun, Khirbet Ez-
Zeror, Tel
Ziggurat
Ziqlab, Wadi

Back to top

Oxford University Press

© 2014. All Rights Reserved. Privacy policy and legal notice