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The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Edited by Bruce M. Metzger and Michael David Coogan

Written by more than 250 scholars from some 20 nations and embracing a wide variety of perspectives, the Companion offers over seven hundred entries on the people, places, events, books, institutions, religious belief, and secular influence of the Bible.

Ranging far beyond the scope of a traditional Bible dictionary, the content features an abundance of in-depth interpretive essays on topics ranging from religious concepts such as immortality, sin, and grace, to baptism, ethics, and the Holy Spirit. It also explores the Bible in relation to modern issues such as homosexuality, marriage, and anti-Semitism, and the impact of the Bible on the arts.

The Companion also serves as a first place to turn to find factual information on all the books of the Bible—including the Apocrypha and many other ancient texts, such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, Pseudepigrapha, and the Mishrah—as well as entries on daily life in ancient Israel and the earliest Christian communities, feasts and festivals, clothing, medicine, units of time, houses, and furniture.

Published by Oxford University Press, 1993.


Table of Contents

A—B | C—E | F—J | K—O | P—S | T—Z | Maps

A—B

Aaron
Abaddon
Abba
Abel
Abortion
Abraham
Abraham's Bosom
Abram
Absalom
Abyss
Acrostic
Acts of the Apostles
Adam
Additions to the Book of Esther
Adultery
Africa
African American Traditions and the Bible
Afterlife and Immortality
Agrapha (Extracanonical Sayings of Jesus)
Agriculture
Ahab
Alexander III (The Great)
Alien
Allegorizing
Alleluia
Alms
Alpha and Omega
Altars
Amalek
Amarna Letters
Amen
American Literature
Ammon
Amorites
Amos, The Book of
Ananias
Anathema
Ancestors, The
Ancient Versions
Andrew
Angels
Animals
Anoint
Anthropology and the Bible
Antichrist
AntiJudaism
Antioch of Syria
AntiSemitism
Apocalyptic Literature
Apocrypha
Apollos
Apostle
Apostolic Council
Apple of the Eye
Aqedah
Arabia
Aram
Aramaic
Ararat
Archaeology and the Bible
Archangels
Areopagus
Ark
Armageddon
Art and the Bible
Artemis of the Ephesians
Ascension of Christ
Asher
Asherah
Ashtaroth; Ashtoreth
Asia
Assyria
Astarte
Atbash
Athens
Atonement
Authority of the Bible
Avenger of Blood
Azariah, The Prayer of, and the Song of the Three Young Men
Azazel
Baal
Baalzebub
Babel, Tower of
Babylon
Balaam
Ban
Baptism
Baptist, John the
Barabbas
Barnabas
Bartholomew
Baruch
Baruch, The Book of
Bathsheba
Beelzebub
Beelzebul
Behemoth
Bel and the Dragon
Belial
Belshazzar
Ben
Benjamin
Bethlehem
Bible
Bible Societies
Biblical Criticism
Biblical Theology
Bishop
Blasphemy
Blessing
Blindness
Blood
Book of Life
Books and Bookmaking in Antiquity
Bread
Bread of the Presence
Brothers and Sisters of Jesus
Burial Customs

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C—E

Caiaphas
Cain and Abel
Cain's Wife
Calendar
Calvary
Canaan
Canadian Literature
Canon
Canticle of Canticles
Capernaum
Catholic Letters
Centurion
Chaldeans, Ur of the
Chaos
Chapter and Verse Divisions
Cherethites and Pelethites
Cherub, Cherubim
Children's Bibles
Chosen People
Christ
Christian
Christian Science and the Bible
Christmas
Chronicles, The Books of
Chronology
Church
Circulation of the Bible
Circumcision
Cities
Cities of Refuge
Clean and Unclean
Clothing
Colossians, The Letter of Paul to the
Computers and the Bible
Concordances
Conquest of Canaan
Conversion
Corban
Corinth
Corinthians, The Letters of Paul to the
Covenant
Crafts
Creation
Crucifixion
Curious Bibles
Curse
Cush
Cyrus
D
Dagon
Damascus
Dan
Dance and the Bible
Daniel, The Book of
Darius
David
Day of Atonement
Day of Judgment
Day of the Lord
Deacon
Dead Sea Scrolls
Death
Deborah
Decalogue
Decapolis
Demons
Descent into Hell
DeuteroIsaiah
Deuteronomic History
Deuteronomistic History
Deuteronomy, The Book of
Devil
Diana of the Ephesians
Diaspora
Dinah
Disciple
Dispersion, Diaspora
Dives
Divination
Divorce
Dreams
Drunkenness
E
Easter
Eastern Orthodoxy and the Bible
Ebla
Ecclesiastes, The Book of
Ecclesiasticus
Ecology
Eden, The Garden of
Edom
Egypt
Elder
Elect, Election
Elijah
Elisha
Elohist
Eloi, Eloi, Lema Sabachthani
Emmanuel
Emperor
English Literature
Enoch and the Books of Enoch
Ephesians, The Letter of Paul to the
Ephesus
Ephod
Ephraim
Epicureans
Epilepsy
Epistle
Esau
Eschatology
Esdras, The Books of
Essenes
Esther, The Book of
Ethical Lists
Ethics
Ethnarch
Eucharist
Eunuch
Euphrates
European Literature
Evangelist
Eve
Everyday Expressions from the Bible
Evil
Exile
Exodus, The
Exodus, The Book of
Exorcism
Eye of the Needle
Ezekiel, The Book of
Ezra, The Book of

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F—J

Faith
Fall, The
Family
Family Bible
Fasting
Fear
Feasts and Festivals
Feminism and the Bible
Festivals
Flesh and Spirit
Flood, The
Forgiveness
Fornication
Fourth Gospel
Frankincense
Freud and the Bible
Fringes
Fundamentalism
Furniture
Gabriel
Gad
Galatians, The Letter of Paul to the
Galilee
Galilee, Sea of
Gamaliel
Garden of Eden
Gehenna
Genealogies
Genesis, The Book of
Gentile
Geography of Palestine
Gestures
Gethsemane
Gezer
Gideon
Gideons, The
Gilgamesh Epic
Glory of God
Glossolalia
Gnosticism
Gog
Golden Calf
Golden Rule
Golgotha
Goliath
Gomorrah
Gospel, Genre of
Grace
Graven Image
Greek
Gutenberg, Johannes Gensfleisch zum
Habakkuk, The Book of
Hades
Hagar
Haggai, The Book of
Hallelujah
HamCanaan, Cursing of
Hammurabi
Hammurapi
Hands, Laying on of
Hardening of Heart
Hazor
Heaven
Hebrew
Hebrews
Hebrews, The Letter to the
Hebron
Hell
Hermeneutics
Hermon, Mount
Herodian Dynasty
Hezekiah
High Place
Hittites
Holiness
Holocaust
Holy Spirit
Holy War
Homosexuality
Hope
Horeb
Hosanna
Hosea, The Book of
Hospitality
Houses, Furniture, Utensils
Human Person
Humor
Hyssop
Idols, Idolatry
Illustrated Bibles
Image
Immanuel (Emmanuel)
Immortality
Incarnation
Incense
Inerrancy
Inheritance
Inspiration and Inerrancy
Interest, Loans and
Interpretation, History of
Irony and Humor
Isaac
Isaiah, The Book of
Ishmael
Israel
Israel, History of
Israel, Religion of
Issachar
Italics
J
Jacob
Jambres
James
James, The Letter of
Jannes and Jambres
Jashar, The Book of
Jebusites
Jehoshaphat
Jehovah
Jehu
Jeremiah, The Book of
Jeremiah, The Letter of
Jericho
Jerubbaal
Jerusalem
Jesus Christ
Jew
Jewelry
Jezebel
Job, the Book of
Joel, The Book of
John the Baptist
John, The Gospel According to
John, The Letters of
Jonah, The Book of
Jordan River
Joseph (Husband of Mary)
Joseph (Son of Jacob)
Joseph of Arimathea
Josephus, Flavius
Joshua, The Book of
Josiah
Judah, The Kingdom of
Judaisms of the First Century CE
Judas Iscariot
Jude, The Letter of
Judges, The Book of
Judgment
Judith, The Book of
Jung and the Bible
Junia
Justice
Justification

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K—O

Kenites
Ketib and Qere
Kingdom of God
Kingdom of Heaven
Kings, The Books of
Kingship and Monarchy
Kiss
Know
Koheleth
Koran
Lachish
Lamb of God
Lamentations of Jeremiah, The
Laodiceans, The Letter to the
Last Supper
Latin
Law
Law and the Bible
Lawyer
Laying on of Hands
Leah
Leaven
Lebanon
Lectionaries
Leprosy
Letterwriting in Antiquity
Levi
Leviathan
Levirate Law
Levites
Leviticus, The Book of
Lilith
Literacy in Ancient Israel
Literature and The Bible
Literature, The Bible As
Loans and Interest
Logos
Lord's Prayer
Lord's Supper
Lot
Love
Lovefeast
Luke
Luke, The Gospel According to
LXX
Maccabees, The Books of the
Magdalene, Mary
Magi
Magic and Divination
Malachi, The Book of
Manasseh
Manasseh, The Prayer of
Manna
Manuscripts
Maps from The Oxford Companion to the Bible
Maps of the Biblical World
Maranatha
Mari Tablets
Mark, The Gospel According to
Marriage
Marx and the Bible
Mary Magdalene
Mary, Mother of Jesus
Maskil
Masorah
Masoretic Text
Matthew
Matthew, The Gospel According to
Meals
Measures
Medes
Medicine
Medicine and the Bible
Meek
Megiddo
Megillot
Melchizedek
Mene, Mene, Tekel, and Parsin
Menorah
Mercy of God
Mesopotamia
Messiah
Messianic Secret
Metaphors
Methuselah
Micah, The Book of
Michael
Midian
Miktam
Miracles
Miriam
Mishnah
Moab
Moabite Stone
Monarchy
Money
Money Changers
Monotheism
Mormonism and the Bible
Moses
Mourning
Murder
Music and Musical Instruments
Music and the Bible
Myrrh
Mystery
Mystery Religions
Myth
Nabateans
Nag Hammadi Library
Nahum, The Book of
Names and Namegiving
Names for the Nameless
Names of God in the Hebrew Bible
Naphtali
Nathan
Nature and Ecology
Nazareth
Nazirite
Nebo
Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadrezzar
Needle's Eye
Negeb
Nehemiah, The Book of
Neighbor
Nephilim
New Jerusalem
Nile
Nimrod
Nineveh
Noah
Nomads
Numbers, The Book of
Number Symbolism
Nuzi Tablets
Obadiah, The Book of
Olives, Mount of
Omega
Onan
Oracle
Orphan

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P—S

P
Palestine, Geography of
Parables
Paraclete
Paradise
Paraphrases
Parchment
Parousia
Passover
Pastoral Letters, The
Patriarchs
Paul
Peace
Pelethites
Pentateuch
Pentecost
Periodization
Persia
Peter
Peter, The Letters of
Pharisees
Philemon, The Letter of Paul to
Philippians, The Letter of Paul to the
Philistines
Philo
Phoenicia
Phylacteries
Pilate, Pontius
Pisgah
Plagues of Egypt
Plants
Poetry, Biblical Hebrew
Politics and the Bible
Polyglot Bibles
Pontifical Biblical Commission
Poor
Popular Culture and the Bible
Pottery
Poverty
Prayer(s)
Predestination
Priestly Writers
Priests and High Priest
Prince of the Power of the Air
Printing and Publishing
Promised Land
Prophets
Proselyte
Prostitution
Proverbs, The Book of
Psalms, The Book of
Pseudepigrapha
Publicans
Purity, Ritual
Q
Qere
Qoheleth
Queen and Queen Mother
Queen of Heaven
Queen of Sheba
Qumran
Quotations of the Old Testament in the New Testament
Qurn and the Bible, The
Rabbi
Rachel
Rahab
Rainbow
Raphael
Rebekah
Rechabites
Red Cow
Redeem
Red Sea
Reed Sea
Refuge, Cities of
Regeneration
Religion
Remnant
Repentance
Rephaim
Resurrection of Christ
Reuben
Revelation
Revelation, The Book of
Righteousness
River of Egypt
Roman Army
Roman Empire
Romans, The Letter of Paul to the
Ruth, The Book of
Sabbath
Sabeans
Sacrament
Sacrifice
Sadducees
Sailing
Saint(s)
Salem
Salome
Salutations
Salvation
Samaria
Samaritans
Samson
Samuel
Samuel, The Books of
Sanhedrin
Sarah
Satan
Saul
Scapegoat
Science and the Bible
Scofield Reference Bible
Scribes
Seba
Second Coming of Christ
Second Isaiah
Selah
Sennacherib
Septuagint
Seraph, Seraphim
Sermon on the Mount
Seven Churches, The
Seven, The
Sex
Shalmaneser V
Sheba, Queen of
Shechem
Shema
Sheol
Shibboleth
Ships and Sailing
Showbread
Silas
Silvanus
Simeon
Simon Peter
Sin
Sinai
Sirach (Ecclesiasticus)
Six Hundred Sixtysix
Slavery
Slavery and the Bible
Social Sciences and The Bible
Sociology and the Bible
Sodom and Gomorrah
Solomon
Song of Solomon
Song of Songs
Son of God
Son of Man
Sons of God
Sortes Biblicae
Spirit, Flesh and
Spirit, Holy
Stephen
Stoics
Structuralism
Suffering
Sumer
Susanna
Symbols
Synagogue
Synoptic Problem
Syria

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T—Z

Tabernacle
Talmud
Tammuz
Targums
Taxation
Tax Collectors
Temple
Temptation
Temptation of Christ
Ten Commandments
Teraphim
Tetragrammaton
Tetrarch
Textual Criticism
Theology
Theophany
Thessalonians, The Letters of Paul to the
Third Isaiah
Thomas
Three Young Men, Song of the
Thummin
Tiglathpileser III
Time, Units of
Timothy, The Letters to
Tithe
Titus, The Letter to
Tobit, The Book of
Tongues, Speaking in
Topheth
Torah
Tower of Babel
Trade and Transport
Translations
Tribes of Israel
Tribute and Taxation
Trinity
Twelve, The
Typology
Ugaritic
Unknown God
Urim and Thummim
Ur of the Chaldeans
Utensils
Vengeance
Verse Division
Versions
Vine and Vineyard
Virgin Birth of Christ
Vulgate
Wadi
War
Water
Way, The
Weapons
Weddings
Weights and Measures
Widows
Wilderness
Wine
Wisdom
Wisdom Literature
Wisdom of Solomon
Wise Men, The Three
Witch
Witness
Women
Word
Word of God
Worship
Writing in Antiquity
Wycliffe Bible Translators
Yahweh
Yahwist
Yam Suf
Yom Kippur
Zadok, Zadokites
Zaphon
Zealot
Zebulun
Zechariah, The Book of
Zedekiah
Zephaniah, The Book of
Zerubbabel
Ziggurat
Zion

Maps

The Land of Canaan: Abraham to Moses
The Exodus
Israel in Canaan: Joshua to Samuel and Saul
The United Monarchy
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah
The Near East in the Time of the Assyrian Empire
The Near East in the Time of the Persian Empire
Central Palestine in Old Testament Times
Jerusalem in Old and New Testament Times
Palestine in Persian-Hellenistic Times
The Near East in the Hellenistic Period: Ptolemaic and Seleucid Empires
Palestine under the Herods
North and Central Palestine at the Time of the Ministry of Christ
The Background of the New Testament: Rome and the East (including Paul's Journey's )

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