15.1–8 : Introduction to the seven plagues of the seven bowls.

2 :

A sea of glass: see 4.6 n. Those who (like Jesus) had been victorious: the martyred faithful (compare Jn. 16.31–33 ).

3 :

Song of Moses … song of the Lamb combines the first deliverer, Moses (see Exod. 15.1–18; Ps. 145.17 ), with the second, Jesus (the new exodus, a central NT theme): Moses' victory over Pharaoh foreshadows victory over the beast; compare Ps. 145.17 .

4 :

Compare Ps. 86.9–10; Jer. 10.7 .

5 :

Tent of Testimony: forerunner of the temple (see Exod. 40.34 ).

8 :

Filled with smoke: see Isa. 6.4 .