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Genesis: Chapter 10

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1These are the descendants of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth; children were born to them after the flood.

2The descendants of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3The descendants of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4The descendants of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim. b Heb Mss Sam Gk See 1 Chr 1.7 : MT Dodanim 5From these the coastland peoples spread. These are the descendants of Japheth c Compare verses 20,–31. Heb lacks These are the descendants of Japheth in their lands, with their own language, by their families, in their nations.

6The descendants of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. 7The descendants of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The descendants of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. 8Cush became the father of Nimrod; he was the first on earth to become a mighty warrior. 9He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD.” 10The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar. 11From that land he went into Assyria, and built Nineveh, Rehoboth‐ir, Calah, and 12Resen between Nineveh and Calah; that is the great city. 13Egypt became the father of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim, from which the Philistines come. d Cn: Heb Casluhim, from which the Philistines come, and Caphtorim

15Canaan became the father of Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, 16and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. 19And the territory of the Canaanites extended from Sidon, in the direction of Gerar, as far as Gaza, and in the direction of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. 20These are the descendants of Ham, by their families, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

21To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, children were born. 22The descendants of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. 23The descendants of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24Arpachshad became the father of Shelah; and Shelah became the father of Eber. 25To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, a That is Division for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother's name was Joktan. 26Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the descendants of Joktan. 30The territory in which they lived extended from Mesha in the direction of Sephar, the hill country of the east. 31These are the descendants of Shem, by their families, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

32These are the families of Noah's sons, according to their genealogies, in their nations; and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood.

Notes:

b Heb Mss Sam Gk See 1 Chr 1.7 : MT Dodanim

c Compare verses 20,–31. Heb lacks These are the descendants of Japheth

d Cn: Heb Casluhim, from which the Philistines come, and Caphtorim

a That is Division

Text Commentary view alone

10.1–32 : The table of nations.

See Map on p. 24 HB. This is a (largely Priestly) survey of the world of the Israelites. Like many ancient peoples, they depicted the relations between national groups in kinship terms.

2–5 :

The descendants of Japheth had their center in Asia Minor (present day Turkey).

6–20 :

The descendants of Ham lived in the Egyptian orbit.

8–15 :

A fragment of the non‐Priestly primeval history. It features a legend regarding Nimrod's building a kingdom in Shinar (Babylonia) and Assyria (vv. 8–12 ). Canaan is the father of two sons, Heth (representing the Hittites originally of Asia Minor) and Sidon (who represents the Phoenician coastal cities).

14 :

See Jer 47.4; Amos 9.7 .

16–18a :

This survey of Canaanite peoples lists ethnic groups rather than ancestors, including the Jebusites (centered in Jerusalem), Amorites (natives of the hill country); and the Hivites (a tribe in central Palestine). The list resembles later lists of peoples displaced by Israel (e.g., 15.19–21; Deut 7.1 ) and may be an addition from the same hand that directed Noah's curse toward Canaan (see 9.18–27n.).

21–31 :

Shem is the father of the Semitic peoples, including Israel. Another pair of fragments of the non‐Priestly primeval history (vv. 21,24–30 ) feature a focus on the children of Eber. The name Eber may be related to “Hebrew.” If so, then this text postulates a wider group of children of Eber of which the Israelites are a part.

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