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Daniel: Chapter 11

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1As for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to support and strengthen him.

2“Now I will announce the truth to you. Three more kings shall arise in Persia. The fourth shall be far richer than all of them, and when he has become strong through his riches, he shall stir up all against the kingdom of Greece. 3Then a warrior king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion and take action as he pleases. 4And while still rising in power, his kingdom shall be broken and divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not to his posterity, nor according to the dominion with which he ruled; for his kingdom shall be uprooted and go to others besides these.

5“Then the king of the south shall grow strong, but one of his officers shall grow stronger than he and shall rule a realm greater than his own realm. 6After some years they shall make an alliance, and the daughter of the king of the south shall come to the king of the north to ratify the agreement. But she shall not retain her power, and his offspring shall not endure. She shall be given up, she and her attendants and her child and the one who supported her.

“In those times 7a branch from her roots shall rise up in his place. He shall come against the army and enter the fortress of the king of the north, and he shall take action against them and prevail. 8Even their gods, with their idols and with their precious vessels of silver and gold, he shall carry off to Egypt as spoils of war. For some years he shall refrain from attacking the king of the north; 9then the latter shall invade the realm of the king of the south, but will return to his own land.

10“His sons shall wage war and assemble a multitude of great forces, which shall advance like a flood and pass through, and again shall carry the war as far as his fortress. 11Moved with rage, the king of the south shall go out and do battle against the king of the north, who shall muster a great multitude, which shall, however, be defeated by his enemy. 12When the multitude has been carried off, his heart shall be exalted, and he shall overthrow tens of thousands, but he shall not prevail. 13For the king of the north shall again raise a multitude, larger than the former, and after some years a Gk Theodotion: Heb I was left there with the kings of Persia he shall advance with a great army and abundant supplies.

14“In those times many shall rise against the king of the south. The lawless among your own people shall lift themselves up in order to fulfill the vision, but they shall fail. 15Then the king of the north shall come and throw up siegeworks, and take a well‐fortified city. And the forces of the south shall not stand, not even his picked troops, for there shall be no strength to resist. 16But he who comes against him shall take the actions he pleases, and no one shall withstand him. He shall take a position in the beautiful land, and all of it shall be in his power. 17He shall set his mind to come with the strength of his whole kingdom, and he shall bring terms of peace b Gk: Heb from now and perform them. In order to destroy the kingdom, c Heb and at the end of the times years he shall give him a woman in marriage; but it shall not succeed or be to his advantage. 18Afterward he shall turn to the coastlands, and shall capture many. But a commander shall put an end to his insolence; indeed, d Gk: Heb kingdom, and upright ones with him he shall turn his insolence back upon him. 19Then he shall turn back toward the fortresses of his own land, but he shall stumble and fall, and shall not be found.

20“Then shall arise in his place one who shall send an official for the glory of the kingdom; but within a few days he shall be broken, though not in anger or in battle. 21In his place shall arise a contemptible person on whom royal majesty had not been conferred; he shall come in without warning and obtain the kingdom through intrigue. 22Armies shall be utterly swept away and broken before him, and the prince of the covenant as well. 23And after an alliance is made with him, he shall act deceitfully and become strong with a small party. 24Without warning he shall come into the richest parts a Heb it of the province and do what none of his predecessors had ever done, lavishing plunder, spoil, and wealth on them. He shall devise plans against strongholds, but only for a time. 25He shall stir up his power and determination against the king of the south with a great army, and the king of the south shall wage war with a much greater and stronger army. But he shall not succeed, for plots shall be devised against him 26by those who eat of the royal rations. They shall break him, his army shall be swept away, and many shall fall slain. 27The two kings, their minds bent on evil, shall sit at one table and exchange lies. But it shall not succeed, for there remains an end at the time appointed. 28He shall return to his land with great wealth, but his heart shall be set against the holy covenant. He shall work his will, and return to his own land.

29“At the time appointed he shall return and come into the south, but this time it shall not be as it was before. 30For ships of Kittim shall come against him, and he shall lose heart and withdraw. He shall be enraged and take action against the holy covenant. He shall turn back and pay heed to those who forsake the holy covenant. 31Forces sent by him shall occupy and profane the temple and fortress. They shall abolish the regular burnt offering and set up the abomination that makes desolate. 32He shall seduce with intrigue those who violate the covenant; but the people who are loyal to their God shall stand firm and take action. 33The wise among the people shall give understanding to many; for some days, however, they shall fall by sword and flame, and suffer captivity and plunder. 34When they fall victim, they shall receive a little help, and many shall join them insincerely. 35Some of the wise shall fall, so that they may be refined, purified, and cleansed, b Meaning of Heb uncertain until the time of the end, for there is still an interval until the time appointed.

36“The king shall act as he pleases. He shall exalt himself and consider himself greater than any god, and shall speak horrendous things against the God of gods. He shall prosper until the period of wrath is completed, for what is determined shall be done. 37He shall pay no respect to the gods of his ancestors, or to the one beloved by women; he shall pay no respect to any other god, for he shall consider himself greater than all. 38He shall honor the god of fortresses instead of these; a god whom his ancestors did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39He shall deal with the strongest fortresses by the help of a foreign god. Those who acknowledge him he shall make more wealthy, and shall appoint them as rulers over many, and shall distribute the land for a price.

40“At the time of the end the king of the south shall attack him. But the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen, and with many ships. He shall advance against countries and pass through like a flood. 41He shall come into the beautiful land, and tens of thousands shall fall victim, but Edom and Moab and the main part of the Ammonites shall escape from his power. 42He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape. 43He shall become ruler of the treasures of gold and of silver, and all the riches of Egypt; and the Libyans and the Ethiopians a Or among the richest men shall follow in his train. 44But reports from the east and the north shall alarm him, and he shall go out with great fury to bring ruin and complete destruction to many. 45He shall pitch his palatial tents between the sea and the beautiful holy mountain. Yet he shall come to his end, with no one to help him.


a Gk Theodotion: Heb I was left there with the kings of Persia

b Gk: Heb from now

a Heb and at the end of the times years

b Gk: Heb kingdom, and upright ones with him

c Heb it

d Meaning of Heb uncertain

a Or among the richest men

Text Commentary view alone

11.1–13 : Succession of kings.

2 :

There were more than four kings of Persia; the numbers do not neatly match historical records.

3 :

The warrior king is Alexander the Great.

4 :

Toward the four winds see 8.8n.

5 :

King of the south is Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt (satrap, 323—305; king, 305—282); the officer is Seleucus I Nicanor who established the Seleucid empire.

6 :

King of the north is probably Antiochus II Theos of Syria, grandson of Seleucus, who married Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, in 252 BCE. Berenice, her child, and her attendants were murdered.

7 :

The branch is Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes, who campaigned against the Seleucids.

8 :

Ptolemy III captured many treasures from Egypt taken by the Persian king Cambyses in the fourth century and held in Babylon.

9 :

The latter invader is Seleucus II Callinicus, whose invasion of Egypt in 242—240 BCE was unsuccessful.

10 :

Callinicus's sons were Seleucus III Ceraunus (227—223 BCE) and Antiochus III the Great (223–187).

11 :

Antiochus III campaigned against Ptolemy IV but was defeated by him at the Battle of Raphia in 217.

13 :

King of the north is Antiochus III, who waged successful campaigns during 212–205.

11.14–20 : Campaigns of Antiochus III.

The Ptolemies and Seleucids continued to fight until, in 198 BCE at the battle of Paneas, the Seleucids defeated the Egyptian forces and gained control of Judea.

14 :

Lawless among your own people (Ezek 7.22 ) may refer to the rivalry between the Tobiad family and the supporters of Onias III; both sought control of the Jerusalem Temple.

15–16 :

The well‐fortified city is Sidon; its fall resulted in Antiochus III's personally taking possession of Judea, the beautiful land.

17 :

Terms of peace refers to the alliance formed when Antiochus III betrothed his daughter, Cleopatra I, to Ptolemy V Epiphanes, in 197 BCE.

18 :

Defeated by the Romans at Thermopylae in 191 and at Magnesia in 190, Antiochus III incurred massive tribute debt.

19 :

Antiochus III stumbled and fell at Elymais in 187, while attempting to plunder the temple of Bel in order to pay his debt to Rome.

20 :

The official is the tribute‐collector, Heliodorus, sent by Seleucus IV Philopator (187–175 BCE) who sought to plunder the Jerusalem Temple (2 Macc 3.1–40 ).

11.21–28 : Antiochus IV.

21 :

The contemptible person is Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175–164 BCE).

22 :

The prince of the covenant is Onias III, deposed by Antiochus and replaced by his assimilationist brother, Jason (see 9.26n. ).

23 :

The small party of Jews, supporting Hellenization, receive rewards from the king's plundering.

25–28 :

Antiochus IV's successful first campaign against Egypt in 169 BCE.

26 :

Those who eat of the royal rations (see Dan 1 ) are Eulaeus and Lenaeus, Ptolemaic courtiers whose plots against Antiochus IV prompted him to invade Egypt.

28 :

Holy covenant means either Antiochus's support in sponsoring anti‐Jewish legislation or his attack on the Temple (1 Macc 1.20 ).

11.29–39 : Attack against the Jews.

30 :

Kittim here represents Rome (cf. Gen 10.4 ), which forced Antiochus to withdraw from Egypt in 168 BCE during his second campaign. That same year, Antiochus desecrated the Jerusalem Temple.

31 :

Forces sent, see 2 Macc 5.24 . The abomination is an altar to Zeus Olympios set up in the Temple's holy of holies (see 8.13n. ); this phrase reappears in early Christian literature (Mk 13.14 ).

32 :

People who are loyal include the Maccabees and their supporters.

33–34 :

The visionary regards himself as one of the wise (Heb “maskilim”); they are distinguished from those of little help, probably the Maccabees. On sword and flame, cf. 1 Macc 1.63 .

35 :

Refining is a testing and purifying process (Ps 17.3; Jer 6.29; 9.6; Zech 13.9; Sir 2.5 ).

37 :

Beloved by women is Tammuz (Adonis), a Mesopotamian god (Ezek 8.14 ).

38 :

God of fortresses is Zeus Olympios; the fortress is likely the citadel in Jerusalem (the Akra) where occupation troops were stationed.

11.40–45 : The end‐time.

40 :

The time of the end moves into speculative material; no longer reporting what happened, the author envisions what will occur.

41–42 :

Edom, Moab, and Ammon are ancient enemies of Israel.

45 :

The ending is particularly ignoble. In fact, Antiochus died of illness in Persia in 164 BCE.

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