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The Second Letter to the Corinthians: Chapter 13

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1 d Dt 19, 15; Mt 18, 16; Jn 8, 17; Heb 10, 28 . *This third time I am coming to you. “On the testimony of two or three witnesses a fact shall be established.” 2 *I warned those who sinned earlier and all the others, and I warn them now while absent, as I did when present on my second visit, that if I come again I will not be lenient, 3 *since you are looking for proof of Christ speaking in me. He is not weak toward you but powerful in you. 4For indeed he was crucified out of weakness, but he lives by the power of God. So also we are weak in him, but toward you we shall live with him by the power of God.

5 *Examine yourselves to see whether you are living in faith. Test yourselves. Do you not realize that Jesus Christ is in you?—unless, of course, you fail the test. 6I hope you will discover that we have not failed. 7But we pray to God that you may not do evil, not that we may appear to have passed the test but that you may do what is right, even though we may seem to have failed. 8For we cannot do anything against the truth, but only for the truth. 9For we rejoice when we are weak but you are strong. What we pray for is your improvement.

10 e 10, 8 . *I am writing this while I am away, so that when I come I may not have to be severe in virtue of the authority that the Lord has given me to build up and not to tear down.

11 *Finally, brothers, rejoice. Mend your ways, encourage one another, agree with one another, live in peace, and the God of love and peace will be with you. 12 f Rom 16, 16; 1 Cor 16, 20/ Phil 4, 22; 1 Thes 5, 26; 1 Pt 5, 14 . Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the holy ones greet you.

13 g Rom 16, 20; 1 Cor 16, 23 . The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the holy Spirit be with all of you.

Notes:

d: Dt 19, 15; Mt 18, 16; Jn 8, 17; Heb 10, 28 .

e: 10, 8 .

f: Rom 16, 16; 1 Cor 16, 20/ Phil 4, 22; 1 Thes 5, 26; 1 Pt 5, 14 .

g: Rom 16, 20; 1 Cor 16, 23 .

Text Commentary view alone
Commentary spanning earlier chapters

10, 1–13, 10 :

These final chapters have their own unity of structure and theme and could well have formed the body of a separate letter. They constitute an apologia on Paul's part, i.e., a legal defense of his behavior and his ministry; the writing is emotionally charged and highly rhetorical. In the central section ( 11, 16–12, 10 ), the apologia takes the form of a boast. This section is prepared for by a prologue ( 11, 1–15 ) and followed by an epilogue ( 12, 11–18 ), which are similar in content and structure. These sections, in turn, are framed by an introduction ( 10, 1–18 ) and a conclusion ( 12, 19–13, 10 ), both of which assert Paul's apostolic authority and confidence and define the purpose of the letter. The structure that results from this disposition of the material is chiastic, i.e., the first element corresponds to the last, the second to the second last, etc., following the pattern a b c b1 a1.

12, 19–13, 10 :

This concludes the development begun in ch 10 . In the chiastic arrangement of the material (see the note on 10, 1–13, 10 ), this final part corresponds to the opening; there are important similarities of content between the two sections as well.

13, 1 :

This third time I am coming: designation of the forthcoming visit as the “third” (cf 12, 14 ) may indicate that, in addition to his founding sojourn in Corinth, Paul had already made the first of two visits mentioned as planned in 1, 15 , and the next visit will be the long‐postponed second of these. If so, the materials in 1, 12–2, 13 plus 7, 4–16 and chs 10–13 may date from the same period of time, presumably of some duration, between Paul's second and third visit, though it is not clear that they are addressing the same crisis. The chronology is too unsure and the relations between sections of 2 Cor too unclear to yield any certainty. The hypothesis that chs 10–13 are themselves the “tearful letter” mentioned at 2, 3–4 creates more problems than it solves.

13, 2 :

I warned those who sinned earlier: mention of unrepentant sinners ( 12, 21 and here) and of an oral admonition given them on an earlier visit complicates the picture at the very end of Paul's development. It provides, in fact, a second explanation for the show of power that has been threatened from the beginning ( 10, 1–6 ), but a different reason for it, quite unsuspected until now. It is not clear whether Paul is merely alluding to a dimension of the situation that he has not previously had occasion to mention, or whether some other community crisis, not directly connected with that behind chs 10–13 , has influenced the final editing. I will not be lenient: contrast Paul's hesitation and reluctance to inflict pain in 1, 23 and 2, 1–4 . The next visit will bring the showdown.

13, 3–4 :

Paul now gives another motive for severity when he comes, the charge of weakness leveled against him as an apostle. The motive echoes more closely the opening section ( 10, 1–18 ) and the intervening development (especially 11, 30–12, 10 ). Proof of Christ speaking in me: the threat of 10, 1–2 is reworded to recall Paul's conformity with the pattern of Christ, his insertion into the interplay of death and life, weakness and power (cf the note 12, 10b ).

13, 5–9 :

Paul turns the challenge mentioned in v 3 on them: they are to put themselves to the test to demonstrate whether Christ is in them. These verses involve a complicated series of plays on the theme of dokimē (testing, proof, passing and failing a test). Behind this stands the familiar distinction between present human judgment and final divine judgment. This is the final appearance of the theme (cf 10, 18; 11, 15; 12, 19 ).

13, 10 :

Authority … to build up and not to tear down: Paul restates the purpose of his letter in language that echoes 10, 2.8 , emphasizing the positive purpose of his authority in their regard. This verse forms an inclusion with the topic sentence of the section ( 12, 19 ), as well as with the opening of this entire portion of the letter ( 10, 1–2 ).

13, 11–13 :

These verses may have originally concluded chs 10–13 , but they have nothing specifically to do with the material of that section. It is also possible to consider them a conclusion to the whole of 2 Cor in its present edited form. The exhortations are general, including a final appeal for peace in the community. The letter ends calmly, after its many storms, with the prospect of ecclesial unity and divine blessing. The final verse is one of the clearest trinitarian passages in the New Testament.

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