Unintelligible utterances required the gift of interpretation (1 Cor. 12: 10); and translation from one language to another was a kind of interpretation (Ezra 4: 7; Acts 9: 36; Heb. 7: 2). The interpretation of the OT by Jesus followed rules prescribed by distinguished rabbis such as Hillel. Christian scholars from the 2nd cent. CE have used their knowledge of other languages and literature in their interpretation of both OT and NT. In 3rd cent. Alexandria they used the method of allegory for exegesis. In Antioch preference was given to the literal meaning of scripture but the method of typology was employed by John Chrysostom and others. During the Middle Ages the interpretation of the Bible was increasingly brought into the service of doctrine e.g. of the Mass; and at the Reformation Luther and Calvin used the Bible to develop their characteristic theological views without allegorical exegesis. Modern interpreters of the Bible use all the resources of criticism; the guiding principle is a determination first to elucidate what the text in its context precisely says, but the accumulation of the wisdom of the ages is not neglected by modern commentators.