The instrument of torture and execution used by the Romans, and previously by the Persians, was an upright stake to which the condemned man's body was tied or nailed. The Romans usually left the stakes in place for repeated executions, and the convict carried a crossbar which was added to the top of the stake and on which the offence incurring the penalty might be inscribed, or a notice proclaiming it might be hung round his neck. Crucifixions have been reported in modern tribal conflicts.