Hebrew for ‘teaching’; the name is given to two collections of Jewish commentaries on the Mishnah, the Palestinian and the Babylonian. This commentary is called Gemara and is essentially analysis of the words of the Mishnah which is the central writing of Judaism, dealing with agricultural and family life, mostly written in Aramaic. The Palestinian Talmud was completed by about 450 CE. The Babylonian, completed a century later, is very much longer and embodies many quotations from the OT.