A rabbinical teacher in the time of Jesus. He gave a rigorous interpretation of the Law, contrasting with the more relaxed and liberal views of Hillel. Those of the Shammai school were often in conflict with the Roman authorities, and after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE were much diminished in influence and numbers. The dispute about divorce (Matt. 19: 1–9) must be understood against the background of rabbinic controversy about Deut. 24: 1. It puts the Christian position in the Shammai camp but with an exceptive clause (19: 9) which greatly liberalizes its rigorism.