Shalmaneser III was king of Assyria, 858–824 BCE; he defeated Hazael of Damascus in 841 and accepted tribute from Jehu of Israel, as recorded on the Black Obelisk, now in the British Museum in London.

Shalmaneser V, 727–722 BCE, put down a rebellion of Phoenicia, Israel, and Egyptian supporters; he imprisoned Hoshea king of Israel (724 BCE) and besieged Samaria, which fell in 722.