A site in Egypt, south of Cairo, excavated at the turn of the 19th–20th cents. by British archaeologists who found a vast quantity of Greek papyri. They consisted of personal and business notes, official documents, and literary texts, including portions of the NT and of the apocryphal gospel of Thomas. Many date from the 3rd and 4th cents. CE and are housed in libraries round the world, including American universities. Those that have been published shed considerable light on the language of the NT writers.