Four kings in ancient Mesopotamia had this name. The second reigned in Babylon from 605 to 562 BCE. (The alternative spelling Nebuchadrezzar (e.g. Jer. 39: 5, NRSV, REB) is closer to the Babylonian form.) He was a powerful and cruel monarch who defeated Assyria and Egypt; in 597 BCE he captured Jerusalem and deported King Jehoiachin to Babylon and appointed Zedekiah in his place. When Zedekiah rebelled, Nebuchadnezzar renewed the assault on Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple, and took many of the people to Babylon (586 BCE), though Jeremiah had urged submission to the Babylonians (Jer. 27: 11).