prehistorian whose work at the Tabun, Skhul, and el-Wad caves in the Carmel range in Israel provided what became a standard chronological and cultural scale for the region, beginning with the Upper Acheulean and ending with the Natufian culture. Garrod studied at Newnham College at Cambridge (1913–1916). In 1921 she enrolled in the archaeology-anthropology program under R. Marrett at Oxford, and In 1922 she became a student of Abbé Breuil at the Institut de Paléontologie Humaine in Paris. She worked at the site of La Quina in southwest France under Henri Martin and published a summary volume on the British Upper Paleolithic In 1926. Following Breuil's suggestion, she excavated Devil's Tower, a Mousterian rock-shelter on Gibraltar (1925–1927), where a broken juvenile skull cap was uncovered. In 1927 she was invited to participate on the European committee that examined the Glozel figurines, which turned out to be forgeries. In 1928 she excavated the Shukbah cave in Palestine and named its previously unknown microlithic and bone industry the Natufian culture, after the wadi by that name. She later dug two small caves in northeastern Iraq: Hazar Nerd, a Mousterian site, and Zarzi, where the microlithic assemblage was named Zarzian. In 1929 she began, as a salvage project, excavations in the caves at the outlet of Naḥal ha-Me῾arot (Wadi Mughara) in the Carmel range. Upon completing the fieldwork there In 1934, she published, In 1937, together with Dorothea Bate, who did the faunal analysis, the seminal volume The Stone Age of Mount Carmel. In 1938, after a survey in Anatolia, Garrod excavated the cave of Bacho Kiro in Bulgaria and uncovered an early Aurignacian industry. From 1939 to 1952 she was Disney Professor at Cambridge University, a position interrupted during World War II, when she served in the army (1942–1945). From 1948 to 1963 she participated in the excavations of Suzanne de Saint Mathurin in Anglees sur l'Anglin, a Magdalenian rock-shelter rich in relief representations of animals and humans. From 1958 to 1963 Garrod conducted excavations in the Bezez, Zumoffen, and Ras el-Kelb caves in Lebanon, where Acheulo-Yabrudian and Mousterian layers were exposed. These led her to provide a new synthesis of the Near Eastern Middle Paleolithic that was published In 1962.

[See also Carmel Caves.]


  • Caton-Thompson, Gertrude. “Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod.” Proceedings of the British Academy 55 (1969): 339–361.
  • Garrod, Dorothy A. E. The Upper Palaeolithic Age in Britain (1926). New York, 1979.
  • Garrod, Dorothy A. E., and Dorothea M. A. Bate. The Stone Age of Mount Carmel: Excavations at the Wady al-Mughara. Report of the Joint Expedition of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem and the American School of Prehistoric Research, 1929–1934, vol. 1. Oxford, 1937.
  • Roe, Derek A., ed. Adlun in the Stone Age: The Excavations of D. A. E. Garrod in the Lebanon, 1958–1963. 2 vols. British Archaeological Reports, International Series, no. 159. Oxford, 1983.
  • Ronen, Avraham, ed.. The Transition from Lower to Middle Palaeolithic and the Origin of Modern Man: International Symposium to Commemorate the Fiftieth Anniversary of Excavations in the Mount Carmel Caves by D. A. E. Garrod. British Archaeological Reports, International Series, no. 15. Oxford, 1982.

Ofer Bar-Yosef