A range of coastal mountains with elevations up to 3,000 m (10,000 ft) stretching northward from Sidon to near Homs, Syria (Map 6:G4). The name means “white,” referring probably to its snowcapped peaks in winter (Jer. 18.14). Lebanon already appears as a place name in the mid‐third‐millennium BCE Ebla texts. In the Bible, Lebanon denotes both the mountains and the country around them, although it is distinct from the Phoenician cities in the neighboring coastal plain (Josh. 13.5–6). The Lebanon and Anti‐lebanon mountains (a parallel range on the east) enclose the Biqaʿ valley (the “Valley of Lebanon,” Josh. 11.17; 12.7). Mount Hermon, the highest peak in the southern Anti‐lebanon chain, stands at the headwaters of the Jordan River. The Bible mentions Lebanon chiefly as a source of timber for large buildings. Solomon's palace and Temple were built with Lebanon cedar (1 Kings 4.33; 7.2; 10.17, 21). The Egyptians and Assyrians also knew Lebanon for its cedar and cypress.

Joseph A. Greene