(Map 1:Y2). Located north of the Sea of Galilee, Hazor was occupied from the early third millennium to the second century BCE. The city's 12‐hectare (30‐acre) acropolis and 70‐hectare (175‐acre) “Lower City,” which was enclosed by earthen ramparts, gained international prominence during the second millennium. Texts mention Hazor as an enemy of Middle Kingdom Egypt (Execration Texts), a destination for tin shipments from the east (Mari archives), and a military objective of New Kingdom Pharaohs (Dynasties XVIII–XIX). Destruction of those levels dating from the Late Bronze Age (1550–1200), with their successive Canaanite temples, may relate to Israelite conquest traditions (Josh. 11.1–15; 12.19). Hazor's Iron Age acropolis continued as headquarters for Canaanite alliances (Judg. 4–5) until Solomon (1 Kings 9.15) and Ahab made it a garrison city. Despite damage by the Arameans in the ninth century and an earthquake in the eighth, Hazor prospered under Jeroboam II before the Assyrians razed it in 732 BCE (2 Kings 15.29), leaving destruction debris one meter thick.

Ron Tappy