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The Jewish Study Bible Contextualizes the Hebrew Bible with accompanying scholarly text on Jewish traditions and history.

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Commentary on Micah

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6.1–8 :

A didactic section about divinely ordained behavior. The text advances the legal metaphor of a lawsuit so as to address the relationship between God and Israel. Of course, this is not a usual lawsuit. Mountains, hills, and the very foundations of the earth are summoned. The Heb of vv. 1–2 abounds in multiple (possible) meanings, but the message of vv. 3–5 is unequivocal: Israel had no reason to abandon God, for God has done no wrong, but rather many gracious acts for Israel. The acts explicitly mentioned relate to the exodus from Egypt, the period of wandering in the desert, including the Balak‐Balaam story (see Num. chs 22–24 ), and the crossing of the Jordan (see Josh. chs 3–4 ).

4 :

Miriam here plays a role equal to her brothers, in contrast to the Torah narrative.

6–8 :

The text here should not be interpreted as a rejection of Temple offerings; rather it expresses the common biblical and ancient Near Eastern concept of the primacy of morality over sacrifices (e.g., 1 Sam. 15.22; Prov. 21.3 ).

7 :

This v. seems to assume that human sacrifice, at least in extreme circumstances, was thought to have been acceptable and efficacious (see Gen. ch 22; 2 Kings 3.27 ).

8 :

This didactic saying is one of the most influential and often quoted sayings in prophetic literature. It was considered as a possible compendium of all the Mitzvot. “R. Simlai when preaching said: Six hundred and thirteen precepts were communicated to Moses, three hundred and sixty‐five negative precepts‐.‐.‐.‐Micah came and reduced them to three [principles], as it is written, He has told you, O human, what is good, and what the LORD requires of you: only to do justice, and to love goodness, and to walk humbly with your God. ‘To do justice,’ this concerns justice; ‘and to love goodness,’ this concerns “gemilut hasadim” (acts of kindness); ‘and to walk humbly with your God,’ this concerns walking in funeral and bridal processions” (b. Mak. 23b–24a; cf. b. Sukkah 49b and Radak). To walk modestly with your God (cf. Targum) is usually translated as “to walk humbly with your God,” but its original meaning is likely to be “to walk wisely with your God” (and cf. v. 9 ).

6.9–16 :

Another explanation for the fall of Jerusalem.

9 :

The text is difficult and some emendations have been suggested. The rendition of this v. reflects an emendation of the MT. The latter may be translated as: “The voice of the LORD cries out to the city— it is sound wisdom to fear Your name—‘Hear, O tribe and city assembly!’‐” If so, the expression within dashes serves as a comment made by the narrator that is easily understood by the readership of the book.

16 :

Omri‐.‐.‐.‐Ahab, the most notorious kings of the dynasty of Omri/ Ahab. The text reflects the common characterization of the House of Ahab as the primary example of a sinful royal house of northern Israel; see 2 Kings 8.18; 21.3, 13; 2 Chron. 21.13; 22.4; 1 Kings 16.23–22.40; 2 Kings chs 10–28 . Likewise, 2 Kings 17.19, 22 , and other texts condemn Judah for following the ways of Israel.

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