see Hag. 1.1–15 n.
The date is October–November, 520 B.C.E.
Zechariah means “the LORD remembers.”
The date is early February, 519 B.C.E.
The vision (vv. 8–12
) is of riders on horses of four different colors, who range throughout the world as a patrol. To the angel's urging that it is time that the wrath be lifted from Jerusalem, the answer is a comforting oracle (vv. 14–17
Jealous: exclusively concerned, or zealous.
The LORD's anger against Jerusalem was mild; the nations, God's agents, went too far.
My house: the temple. Measuring line: used in building, and hence a symbol of reconstruction.
Horns signify innate strength, especially as it is manifested in external activity, either good or evil. Four is obscure, but seems to mean Babylonia. The symbolism of the smiths, though their action is clear, is uncertain; they may suggest counterdestruction.
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