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The Oxford Study Bible Study Bible supplemented with commentary from scholars of various religions.

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Commentary on The Revelation of John

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14.1–20 : Three visions of reassurance, admonition, and the harvest.

1–5 :

The ransomed (v. 3 ).

1 :

Mount Zion: the heavenly Jerusalem; see Heb. 12.22 . A hundred and forty-four thousand: here, not Israel (as in 7.4–8 ), but those ransomed from the earth (v. 3 ).

3 :

A new song: see 5.8–10 .

4 :

Chaste: lit. virgins. It may mean celibacy, either literally or symbolically (see 2.20–22 ; compare 2 Cor. 11.2; Matt. 19.12 ); it could refer to abstinence from such pollutions as are prohibited in Deut. 27.20–30 . Firstfruits: see Exod. 23.19; Jas. 1.18 . They are here the first part of the ransomed, with the whole to come later.

6–13 :

Judgment and warning.

8 :

Babylon the great (see Isa. 21.9 ): here, Rome is meant (see ch. 18 ).

10 :

Wine of God's anger: see Jer. 25.15–16 . Sulphurous flames: see 19.20; 20.10 .

11 :

Smoke of their torment: compare Isa. 34.10 .

14–20 :

The harvest (v. 15 ): a familiar symbol of judgment (see Joel 3.13; Matt. 13.30 ).

14 :

A figure like a man (lit. “Son of Man”): see 1.13–15 n.

17–20 :

Grape harvest (v. 18 ): see 19.15; Isa. 63.1–6 .

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