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The Oxford Study Bible Study Bible supplemented with commentary from scholars of various religions.

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Commentary on Hosea

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1.1 : Introduction.

Hosea means “rescue.” The names of the kings place Hosea in the 740s B.C.E.

1.2–3.5 : Hosea's unfaithful wife.

The figure of the unhappy marriage sets forth God's dissatisfaction with Israel.

1.2–9 : The three children.

4 :

Jehu became king in a bloody revolt at Jezreel in about 842 B.C.E. (see 2 Kgs. 9.1–10.31 ). Jezreel was the name both of a town and of the valley between Galilee and Samaria.

5 :

Break Israel's bow: destroy its power.

7 :

This apparently was added so as to apply to the Southern Kingdom Hosea's message addressed to the Northern.

1.9 :

You are not my people: the LORD renounces the covenant (compare Exod. 6.7 ).

1.10–2.1 : Restoration.

10 :

The substance of v. 9 is here reversed. See Gen. 22.17 and 32.12 .

11 :

Reunited: the division into two kingdoms came after Solomon (see 1 Kgs. 12.1–20 ). Jezreel is here the son, standing for God's restoration of Israel.

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