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The Oxford Study Bible Study Bible supplemented with commentary from scholars of various religions.

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Commentary on Additions to Esther

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1.1–9 : Artaxerxes gives a lavish feast.

2 :

Susa was the winter residence of Persian kings; the official capital was Persepolis.

3 :

King's Friends: see 1 Macc. 2.18 n.

7 :

Thirty thousand talents: the sum is astronomical. The entire description seems to be greatly exaggerated.

9 :

Queen Astin in the Hebrew account is called Vashti. She must have been a current favorite since Xerxes' official wife was Amestris.

1.10–22 : Queen Astin disobeys Artaxerxes and is dethroned.

10 :

The Hebrew version attributes the king's feeling merry to drinking. Eunuchs were originally in charge of the king's harem but later they acquired positions of great influence (Jdt. 12.11 n.; Gen. 37.36; Dan. 1.3 ).

12 :

Perhaps Queen Astin refused because the circumstances would have made her appearance degrading.

20 :

Such naïvete may be due to the heavy drinking of these counselors!

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