Ahasuerus (see Ezra 4.6; Dan. 9.1
) seems to be Xerxes I (485–465 B.C.E.), whose empire extended from India to Ethiopia, and included some twenty satrapies, subdivided into provinces.
Susa, in Elam, was the king's winter residence; Persepolis was the capital of Persia.
Greek authors mention the great banquets given by Persian kings.
Archaeologists have uncovered such a court at Susa.
Xerxes' queen was Amestris; Vashti was perhaps a royal concubine. No mention of Vashti or Esther is to be found outside this book.
The wise men are possibly his seven counselors (Ezra 7.14
Reference to laws never to be revoked is also made in
and in Dan. 6.8, 12, 15
. There may be some irony in the allusion that in both Esther and Daniel the irrevocable decrees against the Jews are ineffective.
The verse seems to be exaggeration.
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