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The Oxford Study Bible Study Bible supplemented with commentary from scholars of various religions.

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Commentary on Esther

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1.1–9 : Ahasuerus' banquet.

1 :

Ahasuerus (see Ezra 4.6; Dan. 9.1 ) seems to be Xerxes I (485–465 B.C.E.), whose empire extended from India to Ethiopia, and included some twenty satrapies, subdivided into provinces.

2 :

Susa, in Elam, was the king's winter residence; Persepolis was the capital of Persia.

3 :

Greek authors mention the great banquets given by Persian kings.

5 :

Archaeologists have uncovered such a court at Susa.

9 :

Xerxes' queen was Amestris; Vashti was perhaps a royal concubine. No mention of Vashti or Esther is to be found outside this book.

1.10–2.4 : Vashti deposed.

13 :

The wise men are possibly his seven counselors (Ezra 7.14 ).

19 :

Reference to laws never to be revoked is also made in 8.8 and in Dan. 6.8, 12, 15 . There may be some irony in the allusion that in both Esther and Daniel the irrevocable decrees against the Jews are ineffective.

22 :

The verse seems to be exaggeration.

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