parallel to 2 Chr. 35.1–27
. Why 1 Esd. begins with this account is not known. Some speculate that the author wished to highlight the role of Josiah,
and possibly to show a connection between his worthy acts and the return from the Exile in the days of Cyrus. The conclusion
seems abrupt, as if more material was once included; possibly the beginning was also lost.
It: the Ark. Family and clan:
see 1 Chr. chs. 24–26
2 Chr. 35.8
In the morning:
2 Chr. 35.12
has “so with the bulls”; the Heb. words for “morning” and “bulls,” having identical consonants, were easily confused.
The eighteenth year of Josiah's reign: 621 B.C.E.
Not paralleled in 2 Chr.
Pharaoh: Necho (reigned 609–594 B.C.E.); 2 Chr. 35.20
. In 609 the Egyptians moved north to attack Carchemish, to aid the Assyrians, who were making a last-ditch stand against the Medes and Babylonians.
parallel to 2 Chr. 36.1–21
A confused version of 2 Chr. 36.4; see 2 Chr. 36.1–4, 9–11
. The name Zarius, otherwise unknown, is likely an error for Jehoahaz, who was exiled to Egypt by Necho (2 Chr. 36.4
). The “bringing back” of Zarius-Jehoahaz reflects further confusion.
He … Joakim: for Joakim, read “Jehoiachin”; eighteen is correct, not eight (2 Chr. 36.9
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