from Horeb (Sinai) to the plains of Moab. See 4.44–49 n.
The LORD's graciousness, despite repeated rebellion, is stressed in order to instruct future generations.
The setting of Moses' final addresses.
Kadesh-barnea: Kadesh (Num. 20.1
see Gen. 7.24 n.
See Num. 21.21–35
, which contain both a review of previous legislation and much that is new. See 5.22–31 n.
See Exod. 33.1–2
see Num. 21.13 n.
see Gen. 15.18 n.
Gen. 12.1–3; 15.12–21; 26.1–5; 28.10–15
Elements of Num. 11.14–17
(in vv. 9–12
) and Exod. 18.13–27
(in vv. 13–17
) have been combined.
See Num. 10.11–13.26; 20.1
See Num. 13.1–14.45
. Here, rather than the LORD (Num. 13.1–2
), it is the people who request spies (v. 22
); this is indicative of their lack of faith.
Towering: built atop hills for defensive purposes.
See Exod. 14.13–14
See Exod. 13.21 n.
On your account: compare Num. 25.4 n.
; contrast Num. 20.12 n.
From Kadesh to the Amorite border (Num. 20.14–21.15
Towards the Red Sea:
see Num. 14.25 n.
Pass through: contrast Num. 20.14–21
Short of nothing: contrast Num. chs. 20
The Moabites and Ammonites (v. 19
) were relatives of Israel (Gen. 19.30–38; 11.27
Thirty-eight: this is a different tradition from v. 7
, which places this span of time at Kadesh (see Num. 13.26 n.
Caphtor: Crete (or possibly Asia Minor); the Philistine invasion is meant (Amos 9.7; Gen. 9.27 n.
Victory over the Amorites (Num. 21.21–35
Made him stubborn:
see Exod. 4.21 n.
No survivors: on “holy” war, see 20.1–20
Sarcophagus: such stone coffins were widely used in the area.
Distribution of the Amorite territory (Num. ch. 32
Moses' successor (see 31.1–29 n.
Because of you:
see 1.37 n.
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