see 7.14 n.
Tekoa: a small town southeast of Jerusalem. Uzziah reigned over Judah about 783–742 B.C.E. and Jeroboam (II) over Israel about 781–746 B.C.E.
see Zech. 14.5
After an opening threat (v. 2
; compare Joel 3.16
), the oracles traverse the nations surrounding Israel. On a map, the reader will see how the LORD's judgment circles closer and closer until it strikes Israel (
). The episodes alluded to in these oracles are now unknown.
Damascus: a long-time enemy of Israel. Gilead: Israelite territory east of the Jordan. Hazael and Ben-ha-dad are royal names. Aram: Syria. Kir:
see 9.7 n.
Gaza, with Ashdod, Ashkelon, and Ekron, were Philistine cities. Edom:
see vv. 11–12
Tyre: a Phoenician seaport.
Because Edom occupied Judah's territory after the latter was conquered by the Babylonians in 587 B.C.E., the two became bitter enemies. Edom lay south of Judah and southeast of the Dead Sea; its main cities were Teman and Bozrah.
Living adjacent to Gilead, east of the Jordan, the Ammonites had sporadic hostilities with the Hebrews. Rabbah: the Ammonite capital.
Moab was south of Ammon.
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