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The Oxford Bible Commentary Line-by-line commentary for the New Revised Standard Version Bible.

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Commentary on 2 Kings

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The Acts of Elisha (2 Kings 2:1–8:15 )

( 2:1–18 ) Elisha's Appointment and Elijah's Ascension

Elijah's life was coming to an end. In general, people in the time of the OT did not regard death as their enemy, but as a natural conclusion to life. YHWH is a God of life—what happens beyond the boundary of death remains out of his reach. Elijah's ascension is one of the very few breaches of the wall of death made by the OT, from which the faith in resurrection develops later. It is no coincidence that of all people, Elijah was expected to return at the time of the NT (Mk 6:15; 8:28 ). Since he only departed rather than died, he did not even need to be resurrected, but merely return from his heavenly journey to announce the Messiah's arrival. According to the present text (vv. 2–6 ), Elijah, Elisha, and many prophet disciples were aware of the impending departure. Elijah wishes to be alone when the time comes: miracles tended to occur at times of silence. Elisha, however, is required and wants to accompany him: as a witness to the miracle and an heir to the master. He does indeed inherit his ‘spirit’ (not completely, though still the double portion due the eldest son, v. 9, cf. Deut 21:17 ). The spirit is that which is closest to the sphere of God, cf. Judg 3:10; 14:6; 1 Sam 10:10; 11:6; Isa 11:2 , and elsewhere. Elisha also inherits Elijah's mantle, which was not only his hallmark (1 Kings 19:13, 19; cf. 2 Kings 1:8 ), but also proved to possess magic powers. Both Elijah and Elisha could divide the river Jordan with it, reminding us of Moses' division of the Reed Sea (Ex 14:21 ). It is strange that Elijah is given a military title of honour: ‘chariot of Israel and its horsemen [better: horses]’ (v. 12 ). Originally it seems to have belonged to Elisha (2 Kings 13:14 ), having then been transferred to his predecessor: by contrast to Elijah, Elisha does seem to have been awarded this kind of merit: an entire cluster of stories (which was, according to Schmitt 1972 , at one time an independent collection, and can be found especially in 2 Kings 3; 6–7 ) tells of wartime successes achieved by the Israelite kingdom with the aid of Elisha.

( 2:19–25 ) Elisha Brings Life and Death

First, however, we are shown that Elisha has the same power to perform miracles as Elijah before him. To this day, one can see the spring named after Elisha at the oasis in Jericho, its wonderfully fresh and abundant water in the heat of the region being attributed to a miracle by the prophet. By stark contrast, another miracle uses incredibly destructive power against teasing children. Apparently Elisha, like his adherents, wore a tonsure which was often the subject of mockery. History tells us that ridiculing prophets can be costly (cf. 2 Kings 1:9–14 ), but so costly? Another forty-two deaths are mentioned in 2 Kings 10:12–14 , where Jehu orders the massacre of Judean princes. Is this later crime prepared for in order to legitimize its methods in the same way as Jehu's massacre of Baal-worshippers in 2 Kings 10:17–27 is preceded in 1 Kings 18:40 by Elijah's murder of prophets of Baal?

( 3:1–3 ) King Jehoram of Israel

The last ruler of the Omri dynasty—not a son, but a (presumably younger) brother of his predecessor Ahaziah—received, like all northern kings, a negative, yet nevertheless more favourable, rating than his parents Ahab and Jezebel. He is said to have abolished the ‘pillar of Baal’, a cult-stone set up by his father. In 1 Kings 16:32 this is not mentioned; perhaps because it was a minor sacrilege, or confused with the ‘altar of Baal’. Perhaps it is even a Deuteronomistic invention, designed to shed a positive light on Jehoram compared to his father. The usurper Jehu's arrow still struck him from behind (2 Kings 9:24 ), not because he personally deserved it, but because the woe which had long hung over his dynasty now befell him. The last king of Israel, Hoshea, suffered a similar fate: his concluding judgement is particularly mild (2 Kings 17:2 )—not because he was a relatively God-fearing ruler, but in order to avoid the misunderstanding that he alone was the cause of the northern kingdom's demise. The Deuteronomistic theologians teach us that God is forbearing, allowing guilt to pile up over a long period of time before demanding atonement. The reader is then asked to apply this perspective to the fall of Judah: its cause is not its last king (Zedekiah), nor even the last kings (including Josiah!). Here too guilt has accumulated over a long period of time, up to the point when, in God's eyes, the mark was overstepped.

( 3:4–27 ) Elisha's Contribution to the Campaign against Moab

Israel under the Omri dynasty was consistently a regional superpower—especially at the time of this story. The kingdoms of Judah and Edom were compliant (vv. 7–8 ), the kingdom of Moab was a vassal liable to pay tribute (v. 4 ), and refusal to do so resulted in military reprisals. One such campaign, however, threatens to fail as water supplies ran out in the desert of Edom. The Judean king has the idea of calling for a prophet of YHWH, and Elisha—an Israelite!—wishes only to deal with the king of Judah (vv. 11–14 ). This must be a remnant of Judean reworking of the text (cf. already 1 Kings 22 ). The older Israelite version of the story reports that Elisha ensured the success of the Israelite king's campaign. He placed himself in a state of trance using music (not only a modern phenomenon!) in which he could simultaneously serve as oracle and adviser. It is pointless to dig holes arbitrarily in an arid country, unless one is ordered to do so by a prophet: miraculously, the holes were filled with water (shall we think that there was an impermeable layer just below the surface?). It is still more unbelievable that the enemy believed this water to be blood (either due to its colouring or because of light reflection), leading them to throw caution to the winds, leave the protection of their defences, and be easily defeated. All this was due to Elisha. It is possible that the oldest version of this tale was a relatively sober report: the advance of the allied army against Moab was initially successful (vv. 4–9a , 24b–26 )—so far as one can describe the devastation of an entire region as successful—until the Moabite king, out of desperation, made a terrible sacrifice, struck Israel with ‘great wrath’, and forced the invaders to retreat (v. 27 ). The source of this ‘great wrath’, be it YHWH, the Moabites, or their god, remains unclear. At this point one should take note of an unusual piece of extra-biblical evidence. King Mesha of Moab (mentioned in 3:4 ) erected a victory stele which was discovered in the Moabite town of Diban in 1863. On it he boasts of his triumphs against Israel (text in ANET, analysis and interpretation in Dearman 1989 ). His description is in some points similar to 2 Kings 3 : during the years before his reign Israel dominated Moab until he turned his trust to the god Chemosh and subsequently forced Israel out of the country. Mesha does not report that Israel, Judah, and Edom made a great campaign against Moab. Nevertheless such action fits well with the time of Omri's dynasty, which tended to have a policy of broad alliances (e.g. against Assyria) and which could always drag Judah in its wake. The sinister, final scene in 2 Kings 3:27 reflects something of the Moabites' religious faith, though nothing of this kind is mentioned in Mesha's report. Chemosh was in no way a lover of child sacrifices, as it may appear here. The crown-prince's sacrifice was rather a desperate attempt to force the god into action, as we have already seen with Jephthah during his war against the Ammonites (Judg 11:30–1 ). We also discover from the Mesha stele that Chemosh exacted a far higher sacrifice from Israel: several Israelite villages were ‘banned’, i.e. given to the god and completely eradicated (cf. the Israelite analogy, 1 Kings 20:35–43 ). The war rituals hinted at here are archaically gruesome, though one must not be deceived by them: they were sporadic rather than widespread. Mass armies, the destruction of entire countries, religious wars dominated by fanaticism, extensive genocide, weapons of mass destruction: none of these phenomena were contrived or practised by the small states of the ancient Near East, but are the invention of our own time.

( 4:1–7 ) Elisha Helps a Poor Widow

2 Kings 4 gives us a view of the way of life of the groups of prophets such as the one gathered around Elisha. They led an eremitic existence in deserted areas, but had followers in the cities from where they received visitors. Occasionally they made preaching journeys to the cities themselves. Apparently, their faith filled their entire lives, so that their needs were extremely modest. The widow of a prophet-disciple is the principal figure in the first anecdote. Her husband had probably given up his material goods when he joined Elisha. He died, leaving a family in debt. The wife was unable to pay these debts and the creditor wanted her sons to work them off. This arrangement existed not only in Israel, but also throughout the ancient Near East (cf. Ex 21:2–4; Deut 15:12 ). In itself, the idea of forcing insolvent debtors to work for their creditors for a limited period of time is not reprehensible, since it ensures the creditor his rights and prevents the debtor from losing his land or long-term freedom. In the eighth century, though, as the prophets complain, this method was used systematically in order to rob farmers of their land (Isa 5:8; Am 2:6; Mic 2:2 ). The present story shows how hard debt-slavery can hit a socially weak family. In the eyes of the law a widow has lost the protection of her husband; if she then loses the support of her sons, she runs the risk of ruin. The fact that she turns to Elisha shows that he was regarded not only as the spiritual leader of the prophet-fraternity, but also as a kind of clan-chief carrying social responsibility for its members. Unfortunately, he does not have the material or legal means to help her. He can, however, perform miracles. Elisha uses one to increase what little she has beyond all measure, though not without asking for her active help. In carrying out his apparently senseless request, the widow proves her faith in him (cf. the strikingly similar structure in 1 Kings 17:7–16 and Mk 6:35–44; 8:1–10 ). The result is several full oil-jars, obviously a fortune enough to relieve poor people of their plight. The story teaches us that those who have faith in the prophet (and his God) will not be let down.

( 4:8–37 ) Elisha Helps a Childless Woman to Bear a Son

Elisha is described as a frequent traveller. He is regularly taken in by a rich lady in Shunem on the northern border of Jezreel (a common situation amongst wandering prophets). The guest room set up on the roof by the husband upon his wife's request shows wealth and generosity: it has firm walls and is equipped with luxurious furniture (v. 10 ). Wishing to show his host appreciation, Elisha offers support from the highest offices in the state (he is obviously a very influential man). The lady proudly refuses this, referring to her own (equally influential) clan. Elisha's servant Gehazi—who was perhaps added to the Elisha stories at a later date—guesses what the lady might secretly desire: she is childless and will, according to all accounts, remain so. Elisha immediately promises her a son: a repeated theme in the Bible, usually announcing the coming of a great Israelite (cf. e.g. Gen 18:10; Judg 13:3; 1 Sam 1:17; Lk 1:13 ), but used here simply to demonstrate the power of prophetic miracles. Initially, the lady hardly dares to take Elisha at his word. She is not disrespectful in v. 16 , only afraid of possible failure—an all too understandable fear, as we shall see. Although the announced birth takes place promptly and punctually (v. 17 ), the child is snatched away at a tender age, by sunstroke, it seems (vv. 18–20 ). He becomes sick in the morning and dies at midday (v. 20 ). The desperate mother immediately knows that only Elisha can help her now. She carries the dead child's body to his chamber and locks it in there, as if to stop the spirit from going too far from the body. A dramatic race against time begins, incredible for the reader, since the child has already died. Without explaining much to her husband (his short retort still tells us that one usually only sought out prophets on holy days), the mother swiftly rides for about 20 km. to the nearby Carmel mountains and finds Elisha there. Gehazi cannot hold her back or send her away before, ‘in bitter distress’, she reports to the prophet what has happened (v. 28 ). Nor is she satisfied with the suggestion that Gehazi should rush to Shunem with the prophet's staff (v. 29 ). Her wish prevails, namely that Elisha should accompany her personally (v. 30 ). She hopes for nothing less than an awakening of the dead and seems to realize that the prophet must be personally present for this. Gehazi can indeed achieve nothing (v. 31 ) and Elisha himself steps in. First of all he prays (v. 33 ): probably a concession to the piety of a later time. Then he undertakes a magical task in two steps (vv. 34–5 ): by laying his entire body exactly next to the corpse he transfers his own life-energy to the child. Initially his warmed body, then a hefty sneeze, show a return to life. The story finishes abruptly (vv. 36–7 ): Elisha places the child in its mother's arms for the second time. Presumably the drama ends on the same day as it had begun. As with other miracles, natural explanations for this phenomena, such as mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, are unnecessary. Something metaphysical has happened, achieved through the miracle-working power of a prophet and the decisive action and faith of a mother.

( 4:38–44 ) Elisha Allows his Disciples to Eat their Fill

It is pleasing that a biblical story has daily domestic chores as its theme—and even makes the men do the work. In the barren landscape of the lower Jordan valley, the group of prophets must literally scrape together a living. An obviously inexperienced man finds a vegetable he does not recognize. It is the wild pumpkin (Citrullus colocynthis), which grows on flat tendrils in arid places and is used as a medicine, but if consumed in great quantities it has a toxic effect (Zohary 1983: 185). It is cut and thrown into the large cooking-pot. During the meal a woeful cry is heard. ‘There is death in the pot’ reveals the terror of men who often enough had too little in the pot to meet their needs. Elisha comes to their aid. A little flour makes their meal palatable. In the past, the search for a natural explanation for this has distracted from the intention of the story. This is a further example of Elisha's miracle-working power and how it helps those who trust in it. The same applies to the following short episode in vv. 42–4 , which is surely a type of the stories of the multiplication of food in the NT. Out of little comes a great deal, so much that all who are hungry can eat their fill and still not finish the food. These are symbolic stories against hunger, encouraging solidarity amongst people, and also showing God's care for his creatures.

( 5:1–27 ) Elisha Heals the Aramean General Naaman

This story brings astonishing news: that Elisha healed neighbouring Aram's highest-ranking military officer of a stubborn illness. Unlike the kings of the time, his name has been remembered. Perhaps he was connected with unhappy memories in Israel. An Aramean campaign through Israel is mentioned (v. 2 ) and it is said that Aram could give Israel orders (vv. 6–7 ). We are placed in a period of widespread Aramean hegemony over Israel, perhaps the time of Hazael and Jehu or Joash (cf. 2 Kings 8:11–12; 10:32–3; 13:22 ). In helping the Aramean general, Elisha simultaneously helps the Israelite king. His reputation as a miracle-worker initially crosses the border by chance, through a young Israelite prisoner-of-war (v. 3 ). By mentioning Elisha, the girl does great service not only to her master, but also to her people and finally her God. Typically of men, however, it initially results in misunderstandings and threats rather than healing and freedom. The Aramean king orders his colleague/vassal in Samaria to produce the necessary miracle immediately, something he is naturally unable to do (vv. 6–7 ). Naaman expects respectful behaviour and conventional miracle-healing from Elisha and threatens to leave when he does not receive this. The consequences are imaginable (vv. 11–12 ). The general of course refuses to descend from his chariot to see the prophet who in turn sends his servant to the door instead of meeting the (enemy!) commander in person (vv. 9–10 ). Nevertheless he is willing to help, but only according to his rules and with the active participation of the patient (v. 10 ). Naaman promptly finds Elisha's demand to ritually bathe in the Jordan unreasonable: as if the rivers in and around Damascus were unsuitable! As soon as Naaman complies with Elisha's instructions, following encouragement from his subjects—these are often more sensible than their rulers, v. 13 !—he is immediately cured (presumably he did not suffer from leprosy, but psoriasis). Some critics have suggested that the story originally ended here, though there is no need for this hypothesis, nor is it probable, let alone the eight narrative layers suggested by Hentschel (1985: 158–60). Naaman understandably returns to his benefactor. He wishes to ensure the future proximity of the God who helped him so tangibly. Since this God resides only in Israel, he wishes to take two mule-loads of Israelite earth to Damascus in order to be able to sacrifice to YHWH there (vv. 15a , 17 ): a splendid earthbound understanding of God, still far removed from the theoretical monotheism of, for instance, Deutero-Isaiah (e.g. Isa 45:5–6 ). Elisha understands the request and grants it immediately, parting from Naaman in peace (v. 19 ; discussion of the problems of the proselytes, as mentioned clearly in v. 18 , is probably a later addition). Appended to this main story, designed to hail the glory of God and Elisha, a secondary narrative deals with the teaching of disciples: what can a prophet accept as recompense for such services and at what point is he selling his soul? The episode has its precursor in vv. 5b , 15b , 16 , where Elisha serves as a good example: in a case like this, a prophet accepts nothing. It must be clear that great power and wealth cannot force or buy the support of prophets and God. Nor must prophets let themselves be used as tools for any interest groups (cf. also Mic 3:5 ). Gehazi, Elisha's servant named in other stories (and probably also included at a later date, 4:27–37; 8:4–5 ) serves as a complementary negative example: he cunningly accepts the presents brought by Naaman for himself, but is strongly condemned by his master for this and is afflicted by the same sickness as the recently healed Aramean. Exempla docent, or: disciples of the prophet, be warned!

( 6:1–7 ) Elisha also Helps his Disciples

The following short story is deliberately inserted to show what can really help the disciples of the prophet. When they are confronted by the need for craftsmanship, someone's axe-blade falls into the water. This seemingly trivial matter was a serious problem to Elisha's followers, since they did not themselves own such valuable tools. They were borrowed and had, of course, to be returned. Called by his student, the master is willing to help. He does not, however, conjure up a new axe, but hurries to the place where the blade sank, asks to know the exact spot, and uses a kind of analogical magic before letting the disciple fish the piece of metal out of the water. The apparently banal episode is symbolically touching: God and his prophet can, in exceptional cases, defy the laws of gravity if God's people require them to do so.

( 6:8–23 ) Elisha Captures Arameans and Subsequently Ensures their Release

The scene moves back from the smaller-scale group of disciples to the larger political world, where Aramean troops can move across Israelite territory unhindered. The only thing the Israelite king can do is to avoid falling into their hands. Indeed he survives ambushes against him several times. The Aramean king (possibly Hazael, should this story have historical roots) can only presume he has been betrayed (v. 11 ). But on discovering that the Israelite king (v. 12 —it could be Joash) is guided by the hand of a clairvoyant prophet, he sends an army regiment with horses and chariots to Dothan (about 15 km. north of Samaria) to arrest Elisha. The city is quickly surrounded and there is no escape for Elisha. The reader sees through the eyes of the despairing servant what nobody else but Elisha can see: a heavenly host stands by Elisha, who also have horses and chariots, but theirs are made of fire (v. 17 ). Perhaps this is an early interpretation of Elisha's archaic title: ‘chariots of Israel and its horsemen [better: horses]’ (2 Kings 13:14 ). But it does not come to a battle with the Arameans. God ‘struck them with blindness’ (v. 18 ), so that Elisha can mock them: the one they seek—himself!—is not here. He will lead them to him. Thus he lures them into his trap, right into the middle of the strongly fortified royal city of Samaria, from which—the tide has turned—they themselves have no escape (vv. 19–20 ). Does the core of the story form a cunning wartime tactic by Elisha? Or was the prophet always considered to be in league with God? He hinders the king, however, whom he respectfully calls ‘father’ (cf., however, 13:14 ), from simply killing the enemy that has fallen into his hands. Prisoners, he teaches, are not to be killed, but to be fed and released (vv. 21–2 ). Such humane principles helped reduce tensions and enmities even back in such times (v. 23 ); but they are not universally kept to the present day.

( 6:24–7:20 ) Elisha Brings Hope in Great Wartime Hardship

Despite the kind gesture of 6:23 , the Aramean threat to Israel becomes critical. The enemy no longer makes plundering raids through the country, but now stands before the capital, Samaria. It was common practice to besiege cities for months, even years, in order literally to starve them out (cf. 2 Kings 17:5; 25:1–2 ). The narrative stresses the increasingly desperate situation: even poor-quality food and fuel is extremely expensive (v. 25 ), ravenous hunger drives people to cannibalism (vv. 26–9, cf. also Lam 2:20; 4:10 ), the king is completely powerless and deeply dejected (vv. 27, 30 ). At last Elisha comes on the scene—not as a possible helper, but as his opponent who must fear for his life (vv. 31–2 ). It seems he encouraged resistance to the enemy and trust in YHWH, though now the king's patience has come to an end (v. 33 ). Elisha sees attack as the best form of defence: God has told him that good-quality food will be available at normal prices within one day ( 7:1 ). A more astute and practical prophecy of salvation is hardly imaginable under the circumstances. When the king's adviser shows doubts, Elisha even risks a woeful prophecy against him ( 7:2 ). The king's silence seems to suggest that he is prepared to give Elisha one final chance. The story reaches its dramatic climax—and then surprisingly digresses to a few lepers standing at the city gates, rejected and avoided by other citizens. They are the first to witness the Arameans' sudden retreat, take personal advantage of the situation, and subsequently announce the news to state officials (vv. 3–11 ). This is a wonderful precursor to Jesus' recognition that God loves making the last first (Mk 10:31 par.). Meanwhile the reader also learns what the lepers do not know: that God brought hallucinations to the Arameans, leading them to believe in the advance of great Egyptian and Hittite armies, and forcing them to break off the siege immediately (vv. 6–7 ). Even if there were a small number of Hittites in the area (and Egyptians further away), they would never have had the power or the will to free Samaria. This, however, is not an indication of the narrator's ignorance, but of the Arameans' confusion. Not believing in God, the Israelite king is not convinced by such a story, and suspects a trick (v. 12 ; cf. a very similar scene in 3:23–4 ). Finally, however, they dare carefully to investigate the situation—and find the Arameans' eastward retreat route to the Jordan littered with weapons and goods discarded in panic. Only now do they dare to enter the camp before the city and take possession of their provisions. Lo and behold, food prices do indeed sink to the level forecast by Elisha (vv. 13–16 ). The story cannot end without showing the doubting adviser meeting the fate he deserves (v. 17; vv. 18–20 were probably added later as further clarification and explanation). The narrative themes are war and victory, though neither is glorified. War brings terrible suffering to mankind, especially to civilians and above all to women and children ( 6:28 !). Furthermore, Israel is not victorious due to its own means, but is granted victory when almost all hope has disappeared. Only the prophet believes that God can help even when one's own resources have been exhausted.

( 8:1–6 ) Elisha Helps a Refugee

The episode refers back to the story in 4:8–37 , but concentrates only on the woman and her property. Her son and husband play no further part—probably a sign that the story was handed down separately. Elisha foresees famine, warns the woman, and recommends her to emigrate in advance (cf. the motive named in the stories of Ruth and Joseph and countless reports of so-called economic refugees today). In this way she does indeed survive the famine, but finds that her property belongs to someone else when she returns. It probably fell into the crown's hands since it had no owner. Had neighbours taken it over, an argument within the clan would have had to be solved. The woman appeals to the king who returns her the land on hearing of her connections with Elisha. Once again we see what influence the prophet has with the king and how much he uses it to support his followers, especially those who are in social need (cf. also 4:1–7 )! Referring back to 1 Kings 4 , this story seems to add a new aspect in vv. 4–5 . Here, Elisha's servant Gehazi announces all his master's great deeds to the king who is highly impressed with the prophet's miracle-working power. A recently published ostracon (inscribed potsherd) contains the plea of a widow to an official asking for transference to her of her late husband's land (see Bordreuil, Israel, and Pardee 1998 ). Whether or not she was successful remains unclear; she did not have a prophet as her ally.

( 8:7–15 ) Elisha Supports a Change of Power in Damascus

An eminently political story is placed at the end of the Elisha cycle (though cf. also 2 Kings 13:14–21 ). It is highly surprising that a prophet can move about in the capital city of his most dangerous enemy and even influence the highest political circles there. The Aramean king, named here as Benhadad, becomes seriously ill and sends his general Hazael to Elisha—the prophet of YHWH and not of Hadad or Baal!—in order to request an oracle. Elisha's reply is ambiguous: Hazael should tell the king he will recover although he will also die (v. 10 ). The riddle is solved a little later: the king would have survived his illness (v. 14 ), but cannot survive Hazael's assassination attempt (v. 15 ). Hazael probably did not wish to wait for his predecessor's natural death, as Elisha foresaw. At the same time, a vision shows the prophet how brutally the new ruler will attack Israel (vv. 11–13; cf. 1 Kings 19:17; 2 Kings 8:28; 10:32–3; 12:17–18; 13:3; Am 1:3 ). It seems that Elisha, even if only after an inner struggle, actually encourages Hazael to carry out the coup and to murder. If one remembers that the relationship between Israel and Aram at the time of the Omri dynasty was relaxed, and that the change of power in Damascus dramatically worsened it, Elisha seems to be shown in an unnervingly lurid light. The war which Hazael declares shortly after his accession leads to the Omride Joram's wounding and his murder by general Jehu (who hated Arameans). All this was suggested by Elisha (2 Kings 9–10 ). Was this his intention in going to Damascus? Did he take the suffering and death of many people into account in his efforts to bring about political change in Israel? Or is this story not to be understood historically, but as an

Table 13.3 The liaison between Israel and Judah during the Omri dynasty

Relationships Mutual undertakings
Israel Judah
Omri Ahab m. Jezebel Asa Jehoshaphat [Together against Aram? 1 Kings 22:1–40 ]
Almost a common fleet 1 Kings 22:49
Together against Moab 2 Kings 3
Ahaziah Athaliah m. Joram Ahaziah Together against Aram 2 Kings 9
70 princes 42 princes Die together 2 Kings 10:1–14
attempt to explain the kings' murders and the Arameans' strikes against Israel as events in accordance with God's purposes?

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