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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Zephaniah

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Commentary spanning earlier chapters

3.1–8 : Against Jerusalem.

As in Am 1–2 , a sequence of judgment speeches against the nations ends at home.

1–2 :

Cf. Isa 1.21–23 .

3–5 :

Cf. Ezek 22.25–28; Mic 3.1–12 .

5 :

Every morning, Hos 6.3; Lam 3.22–23 .

6 :

For other descriptions of ghost towns, see Isa 5.9; 6.11; Jer 9.11; 33.10; 46.19 .

2.1–3 : A muted call to repentance.

The faithful, perhaps (v. 3 ), will be spared.

3 :

Seek, Isa 55.6; Am 5.6–7 . Humble, 3.12–13 .

2.4–15 : Against the nations.

Prophetic collections often included speeches addressed to foreign nations (e.g., Isa 13–23; Jer 46–51; Am 1–2 ).

4–7 :

An oracle against peoples to the west of Judah.

4 :

Four of the five main Philistine cities (1 Sam 6.17 ) are named (cf. Jer 25.20; Am 1.6–8 ).

5 :

The Cherethites, here and elsewhere, are identified with Philistines (Ezek 25.16 ). They probably originated in Crete.

8–11 :

Oracles against peoples to the east of Judah.

8 :

Moab,Ammon, Transjordanian states. How they have taunted my people, probably refers to forms of ritual cursing, with origins in warfare; this very oracle serves as an Israelite example.

9 :

Like Sodom … Gomorrah, Gen 19.24–28,30–38; Am 4.11; Jer 49.18; 50.40 .

12 :

An oracle against a nation to the south, Ethiopia (2 Kings 19.9; Isa 18; Am 9.7 ). My sword, Isa 34.6–7; Jer 47.6; Ezek 21.8–10 .

13–15 :

An oracle against a nation to the north, Assyria; see also Nahum.

15 :

Hisses, to ward off a similar fate (Jer 18.16 ).

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