The author adapts the Pauline form (see Rom 1.1–7n. ).
Exiles of the Dispersion, applying images of Israel to Christians (see Jas 1.1n.
A proto‐Trinitarian formula. Obedience and being sprinkled with blood are covenant language (see Ex 24.3–8
As in 2 Cor 1.3 and Eph 1.3
, the customary thanksgiving (see Rom 1.8–15n.) becomes a doxological expression of praise that constitutes the theological
basis of the imperatives to follow.
Hope expresses the present confidence in the reality of future redemption founded on the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
New birth is related to baptism (see 1.23; 2.2; 3.20–22; Jn 3.3–5
Salvation is ready to be revealed at the end‐time. The present experience has a future consummation. The believer does not go “up” to heaven, but “forward”
to the future reward to be revealed at the end‐time.
The readers' Christian lives, though beset with difficulties (
1.6; 2.19–24; 3.14–15; 4.12–19; 5.10
), represent the climax of God's plan for the ages, which even the prophets and the angels could only long to share.
a united whole though incorporating elements of earlier Christian tradition.
The new identity as the elect and holy people of God. On the basis of the preceding indicative statements of God's mighty
acts, imperatives are given for the Christian life.
The first imperative (in Greek) in the letter is the command to live in the hope of Christ's triumphal appearance.
The second imperative to be holy means to live a life set apart for God's service, though in the midst of the world.
Quoting Lev 11.44–45; 19.2; 20.7
The third imperative is to live in reverent fear of God rather than the oppressive culture (cf. 2.17; 3.14
Lamb without … blemish,
see Lev 23.12; Num 6.14; etc.
Christian faith is theocentric, in God who has acted definitively in Christ.
The fourth imperative is the command of love, unselfish caring for others (see Mt 22.34–40; Rom 13.8–10; 1 Cor 13
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