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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Malachi

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1.1 : Superscription:

Cf. Zech 9.1n., 12.1 . Oracle, lit. “burden”; see Nahum 1.1n. Malachi means “my messenger”; see 2.7; 3.1 .

1.2–5 : Affirmation of God's faithfulness to Israel.

2–4 :

The implication is that the respective fortunes of these sibling cultures after the exile were evidence of divine favor or disfavor: Jerusalem and Judah were rebuilt; Edom was not.

2 :

I have loved you, cf. Deut 7.7–10 . Esau, Jacob's twin brother, was the ancestor of the Edomites (Gen 25.19–34; 36.1 ). For other anti‐Edomite sentiments, see Isa 34; 63.1–6; Jer 49.7–22; Ezek 25.12–14; Am 1.11–12 ; Obadiah.

1.6–2.9 : The priests have been unfaithful to their covenant.

1.6 :

Ex 20.12 .

8 :

Blind or lame animals were unacceptable for sacrifice (Lev 1.3; 22.17–25; Deut 15.21 ).

9 :

The favor (lit. “face”) of God, that he may be gracious, there are echoes here of the classic priestly blessing of Num 6.24–26 .

10 :

Shut the temple doors to halt unacceptable worship; cf. Isa. 1.13; Am 5.21–24 .

11 :

Among the nations, this may refer to Jewish worship in the Diaspora or to worship by Gentiles (cf. Ps 102.15 ).

2.3 :

Ex 29.14; Nah 3.6 .

4 :

Levi was the priestly tribe (Num 3.45; 18.21–24; Deut 33.8–11 ). Covenant with Levi, Jer 33.21; Neh 13.29 .

5 :

Covenant of life and well‐being, Num 25.10–13 , where Heb “shalom” (here well‐being) is translated “peace.”

6–8 :

Instruction, Heb “torah.”

7 :

Lev 10.11; Deut 21.5 .

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