Like his speechlessness, these actions appear to be literary metaphors rather than observable performances (e.g., see 4.4–8n.
). In Ezekiel, reality is more complex than the merely observable.
A brick inscribed, before baking, with a drawing of Jerusalem. An iron plate, a baking griddle, symbolizing the barrier between the city and God.
At one level the postures commanded of Ezekiel illustrate the coming siege of Jerusalem and its duration. They also depict
both God's pre‐siege punishments of Israel in the land (v. 5; see Lev 26.14–32
) and God's post‐siege punishment of Judah in exile (v. 6; cf. Num 14.34
The precise significance of the numbers is unclear.
Coarse bread and rationing symbolize the rigors of the coming siege of Jerusalem (cf. Jer 19.9; Lam 4.10
The necessity of mixing grains indicates scarcity of foodstuffs.
Twenty shekels, approximately 228 gr (8 oz). One‐sixth of a hin, approximately .64 l (.67 qt).
Siege symbolism again blurs into exile symbolism here. Human dung, considered unclean (Deut 23.13
), represents the defiling effects of exile to an unclean land. Zech 3.3–5
shows how those in the tradition of Ezekiel came to terms with this defilement after the exile. Ezekiel was allowed to substitute
dried “cow dung” (v. 15
), common fuel in the Near East.
Cf. Lev 17.10–16
Staff of bread, “food supply” (Lev 26.26
The razor symbolizes military defeat (Isa 7.20
). The defeated people are then destroyed in three different ways. Even their remnant undergoes further judgment.
Center of the nations, central priests, such as Ezekiel, viewed Jerusalem as the mythopoetic center of the earth (see 38.12
, “center [lit. navel] of the earth”;
Cannibalism was a curse for breaking the “Holiness Collection” covenant (Lev 26.29
Pestilence, famine, and sword (also
6.11–12; 7.15; 12.16; 14.21
) are also linked as modes of destruction in Lev 26.25–26
and in Jeremiah (e.g., Jer 14.12; 21.7
They shall know …,
Staff of bread,
14.21; Lev 26.22
The mountains of Israel, the highlands, representing all Israel, are here associated with illegitimate worship and idolatry (v. 9; cf. 18.6
). High places were ritual installations or shrines. Their destruction was a curse for breaking the “Holiness Collection” covenant (Lev 26.30
Idols translates Ezekiel's characteristic term “gillulim,” found in Lev 26.30
and thirty‐nine times in Ezekiel.
Towns shall be waste …, Lev 26.31
You shall know …, one of over sixty similar closing declarations in Ezekiel (see vv. 10,13–14
). Ezekiel prophesies that God's judging and saving acts will prove God's sovereign identity and result in human recognition
of God. In general, the book of Ezekiel deemphasizes the prophet's human experience, focusing instead on God's desire to reveal
the mystery of God's own self.
A second prophecy of judgment, beginning with an expressive action.
From the wilderness of south Judah to Riblah in central Syria was the maximum extent of Israelite territory.
Ezekiel was a Zadokite priest (v. 3; 44.15–31n.
), steeped in the traditions of Jerusalemite royal theology (Zion theology; see Introduction). Despite his exile, he never
loses his priestly role (cf. 43.12n.
). The thirtieth year, probably Ezekiel's own age. At the age for assuming his duties at the Jerusalem Temple (Num 4.3
), Ezekiel sought solitude outside his settlement (see 3.14–15
) to reflect on what course his life might instead take in exile. Fifth day of the fourth month… fifth year of the exile would be July 31, 593 BCE. Chebar, a canal, flowing near Nippur, which is mentioned also in Babylonian documents.
The name Ezekiel means “God strengthens.” Hand of the LORD
3.14,22; 8.1; 33.22; 37.1; 40.1
), Ezekiel undergoes the same types of divine compulsions and ecstatic trances experienced by Israel's early prophets, such
as Elijah and Elisha (1 Kings 18.46; 2 Kings 3.15
). Chaldeans, Babylonians.
Cf. the imagery in 1 Kings 22.19–22; Isa 6.1–9
. The first two‐thirds of Ezekiel's vision of God merely describes the creatures and wheels below the platform supporting
God's throne. In Ezekiel's theology of God's transcendence, God is clearly far removed from earthly perception.
Stormy wind… cloud… and fire are phenomena often associated with the appearance of God in the Hebrew Bible (see Ps 18.8–12
). Out of the north, because the shape of the Fertile Crescent meant that anything coming from Jerusalem arrived in Babylonia from the north.
Something like, Ezekiel uses the word like to suggest the difference between his description and the transcendent reality itself.
The living creatures are identified as cherubim in a later vision (
), guardians of God's throne (see Ex 25.18–22; 1 Kings 6.23–28
), namely winged, human‐headed lions or bulls. Uncharacteristically, the creatures Ezekiel sees have four faces (v. 10; cf. Rev 4.7
cf. Gen 15.17
The four … wheels (compare the four faces of the creatures) to God's throne are a crucial element in Ezekiel's reconciling of his central priestly
belief that God had elected and now dwelled in Zion with the earthly Zion's coming destruction by the Babylonians (see Introduction).
Its wheels mean that the real, cosmic Zion—throne has omnidirectional mobility and is not tied down to earthly Jerusalem.
Full of eyes, symbolic of omniscience (
10.12; Zech 4.10; cf. Rev 4.6,8
A dome, referring to the cosmic firmament of Gen 1.6–8
, which separates earth and heaven. Jerusalem and its Temple mount symbolize the cosmic mountain where heaven and earth intersect
at the dome.
Thus the LORD was still really enthroned atop the cosmos, even though Jerusalem, the symbol of God's cosmic dwelling (Ps 26.8; 63.2; 102.16
), was to be destroyed by the Babylonians. On the glory of the LORD,
Appearance of the likeness, the qualified language again emphasizes God's transcendence and cosmic power (see 1.4n.
). God's self is three levels removed from Ezekiel's description of God.
The sheer length of this section reflects the need to establish Ezekiel's authority in the factious milieu of his times.
Ezekiel is commissioned in a series of addresses.
The term mortal is literally “son of man” (textual note b), a Heb idiom designating a member of the category of “humanity.” The traditions of Ezekiel's group stressed how God and
the divine realm transcended this category (the idiom occurs ninety‐three times in Ezekiel).
Spirit (see 3.12,14,24
), an empowerment that Ezekiel experiences as coming from God.
Rebellious house, a phrase unique to Ezekiel that designates one of his major themes: Judah's ingrained defiance (ch 20
Briers and thorns… scorpions, though Ezekiel is a priestly official, his message will be met with hostility.
In conformity with the contemporary emergence of the concept of God's word as sacred text, Ezekiel is told to eat a scroll (cf. Zech 5.1–4; Rev 10.8–11
). The scroll depicts the coming, fixed judgment of Judah. See 3.22–27n.
Jeremiah's metaphor (Jer 15.16
) becomes a concrete sensation in Ezekiel. Yielding to God's word is sweet (Ps 19.10
), even when its contents involve pain.
Preparation for resistance.
Hard, or “strong.” Compare the meaning of Ezekiel's name, “God strengthens” (
A final charge.
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