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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Exodus

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28.1–29.42 : The priests.

28.1–43 :

The priests' vestments, special garments worn when acting in their official capacity (vv. 2,4,40,43; 39.1–31 ).

1–5 :

A hereditary office of priest is established to officiate at the tabernacle. Beginning with Aaron ( 6.16–25, esp. v. 23 ) there is to be one high priest in each generation, though the actual term does not appear here.

6–39 :

Aaron's vestments.

6–12 :

The ephod is a garment similar to an apron ( 26.1; 1 Sam 2.28 ) used in connection with the sacred lot (v. 30 ). The engraved stones on each shoulder‐piece (vv. 9–12 ) symbolize the high priest's intercessory role on behalf of the twelve tribes (v. 29 ).

15–30 :

Hanging from the shoulder‐pieces is the breastpiece of judgment, a pouch that contains the sacred lots, Urim and Thummim (v. 30 ), used to obtain oracular decisions (Lev 8.8; Num 27.21; Deut 33.8; 1 Sam 14.41–42; 23.6–13 ); it was about 22 cm (8.75 in) square. Like the ephod, the breastpiece also bears the names of the tribes for a continual remembrance before God (v. 29 ).

31–34 :

A short garment, the blue robe of the ephod, is worn under the ephod. The bells will identify the high priest so that he may not die when he enters or leaves the holy place (v. 35 ).

36–39 :

The turban, bearing an engraved rosette of pure gold, symbolizes the regal splendor of the high priest (Ezek 21.26; Zech 3.5 ) and his being set apart (holy) to God's service.

40–43 :

Vestments for all the priests.

42 :

20.26 .

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