comprise a separate literary composition also known as 5 Ezra.
Ezra is given a high‐priestly genealogy similar to Ezra 7.1–5 and 1 Esd 8.1–2
, but with several differences (see 1 Sam 14.3
Prophet is unusual; Ezra is usually called “priest” or “scribe” (Ezra 7.6,11; see 2 Esd 12.42n.
Probably Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE).
The expression, The word of the Lord came …, is typical of prophetic address.
Isa 58.1; Joel 1.3
Was it not I … ?, the Exodus was God's paradigmatic mighty act for Israel.
The command to Ezra to pull out his hair is a prophetic act signaling Ezra's disgust with the people.
How long shall I endure them … ?, frequent rhetorical questions like this one highlight God's exasperation.
Tyre and Sidon, this action is not recorded in other Exodus traditions.
. You have forgotten me, God indicts the people.
Ex 16.13; Ps 105.40
The bread of angels,
Ps 78.24–25; Wis 16.20
Num 20.11; Wis 11.4
. I clothed you with leaves, this is not mentioned in other Exodus traditions; protection from the heat is sometimes attributed to the pillar of cloud (Ex 13.21
. I will turn to other nations, the pivotal point of 5 Ezra, in which God decisively rejects the former nation (see Mt 21.43
Isa 1.15; 59.7
Jer 24.7; Heb 8.10
Compare Mt 23.30–38
. This is the closest New Testament parallel in 5 Ezra, and it suggests Christian authorship.
. The rejection of circumcision also reveals the Christian identity of the author.
Emphasis is placed on the untutored goodness of the people that will come.
With bodily eyes,
God addresses Ezra as father, a term of respect. The people coming from the east suggests a return from exile (see Bar 4.36–37; 5.5
The three patriarchs and the twelve minor prophets, arranged in the order of the Septuagint.
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