Both Gentile (you) and Jewish Christians (all of us) formerly engaged in a lifestyle of sin and lacked God's protection and blessings (were dead/children of wrath).
By grace … saved, deliverance to a new life is due solely to God's mercy and benevolence, and precludes any human boasting (Rom 3.21–30
Raised … places, believers have been exalted like Christ himself (
Good works … life, a new, divinely designed lifestyle is the appropriate result of salvation.
A prayer is interrupted by vv. 2–13
and resumed in v. 14
see 1.9 n.
; here God's plan is the uniting of Jews and Gentiles into a single community. Above, in
1.9–10 and 2.11–22
or perhaps “previously” and thus a reference to an earlier Pauline letter.
1 Cor 15.8–9
Wisdom of God … heavenly places, the church in turn reveals God's plan (wisdom) to the spiritual powers.
Sufferings … glory, imprisonment on behalf of the Gentiles (v. 1
) has secured their life and future glorification (2 Cor 1.6; 4.12; Col 1.24
Ephesus, an important city on the west coast of Asia Minor, which Paul had visited (see Acts 18.19–21; 19; 1 Cor 16.8
); see the Introduction.
A common Pauline greeting drawing upon and transforming conventional Greek (grace) and Hebrew (peace) salutations.
In Christ, a theme throughout this section, indicating Christ's mediation of divine blessings. In the heavenly places, heavenly benefits are a present reality for believers.
God chose us … as his children; he provides forgiveness, wisdom, and an inheritance.
See Col 1.15–17, 22–23
see Rom 8.15; Gal 4.5
Beloved, a title for Christ; cf. “beloved son,” Mk 1.11; Col 1.13
His blood, Christ's sacrificial death.
Mystery, the previously hidden plan of God, which here encompasses all creation.
Fullness of time, the culmination of human history. To gather … earth, the unification of the cosmos under and through Christ.
You, the Gentiles (
) have also been included in God's blessings. Promised, by the prophet Joel (Joel 2.28–32; Acts 2.14–21
) or Jesus (Lk 24.49; Jn 14.26; Acts 1.4–5
Pledge, the same Gk word is translated “first installment” in 2 Cor 1.22
Eyes of your heart enlightened, in contrast to their former darkened understanding (
At his right hand, a common early Christian description, dependent on Ps 110.1
, of Christ's exaltation (Acts 2.34–35; Rom 8.34; Col 3.1; Heb 8.1
Rule … dominion, hostile spiritual powers subjected to Christ (1 Cor 15.20–28
see Phil 2.9
see Col 1.18
see 4.11,15–16; 1 Cor 12.12–13,27
. The fullness, the church expresses God's power and presence to the world or perhaps the church has been completed by Christ.
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