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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Amos

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4.1–3 : Israel's luxurious excesses.

Wealthy and greedy women of Samaria would be punished along with their husbands.

1 :

Cows of Bashan, Bashan was a fertile region in northern Transjordan renowned for its cattle (Ps 22.12 ). Israel's hold on this prize testifies to its prosperity in Amos's day.

3 :

Straight ahead, with the city walls in ruins, the captives will be easily taken away.

4.4–5 : Israel's piety is satirized.

4 :

Bethel, see 3.14n. Gilgal, a venerable Israelite shrine near Jericho (e.g., Josh 4.20; 10.43; 1 Sam 7.16 ), condemned by Amos ( 5.5 ) and his contemporary Hosea (Hos 4.15; 9.15; 12.11 ). The ritual practices listed here are prescribed elsewhere; for the morning sacrifice, see Ex 29.29 ; tithes, see Lev 27.30–32; Deut 14.28–29 ; thank offering of unleavened bread, see Lev 7.13 ; freewill offerings, see Num 15.3 . Note the association of tithes with Bethel in Gen 28.22 .

4.6–13 : Israel has ignored the divine warnings issued through plagues.

These plagues typify the curses a treaty partner brought on itself through disobedience. Israel's covenantal documents contained such curses (Lev 26.14–39; Deut 28.15–68 ).

6 :

Cleanness of teeth, i.e., famine.

10 :

A pestilence after the manner of Egypt, Ex 9.3–7,15 . The stench of unburied corpses, as in Isa 34.3 .

11 :

The verb overthrew here could refer to an earthquake, as it seems to in Gen 19.25,29 , in which the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is described.

13 :

The first of three doxologies interspersed throughout Amos ( 5.8–9; 9.5–6 ). These hymn‐like sections emphasize that the God Israel encounters in judgment is the creator.

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