See 2 Cor 1.1; 1 Tim 1.1
Child, see 2.1; 1 Tim 1.2
. The repetition of child and you (in singular form:
2.1; 3.10, 14; 4.5
) gives the tone of a last will.
Appeals to suffer for the gospel.
One sentence in Greek, this links the writer and his ancestors to Timothy and his mother and grandmother. Conscience, see 1 Tim 3.9
. Timothy's mother, see Acts 16.1
. Sincere, literally “without hypocrisy.”
A maxim against cowardice (see Sir 34.4
) precedes a direct exhortation
against being ashamed of the gospel and a fragment of a hymn summarizing the gospel.
Rekindle, the word implies continuous burning. Laying on of … hands, see 1 Tim 4.14
Self-discipline, not private rigor but God-given endurance. See Titus 1.8; 2.5–6
Ashamed in various forms (
1.12, 16; 2.15
) is a key theme: Believers must rely on the power of God to counter the shame and suffering associated with the gospel.
Elsewhere in the Pastorals (
4.1; 1 Tim 6.14
), appearing means Jesus' future coming; here, his incarnation.
Passing on the apostolic
Serving the gospel. Personal experiences (vv. 11, 15–18
) illustrate perseverance (vv. 11–14
). Onesiphorus is an example of one not ashamed of the gospel. In contrast, Phygelus and Hermogenes have turned away.
That day, see 1.18; 4.8
Treasure, literally a deposit.
Asia, a Roman province, western Asia Minor (modern Turkey). Phygelus and Hermogenes, unknown elsewhere.
Found … find, a play on words.
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