Epistolary opening. The formal opening suggests a chain of command from God to Paul to Timothy.
Command, literally “order placed upon,” see Titus 1.3
. Savior in Paul describes Jesus (see Phil 3.20
); in the Pastorals savior describes both God (1 Tim 1.1; 2.3; 4.10; Titus 1.3; 2.10; 3.4
) and Jesus (2 Tim 1.10; Titus 1.4; 2.13; 3.6
My loyal child also describes Titus (Titus 1.4
Timothy's task. Timothy is to teach against the false doctrine that encourages deviations from order (training) that promotes good conscience. These deviations include those who revel in speculative thought (v. 4
), those who do not teach love that comes from a pure heart (v. 5
), and those whose teaching does not conform to the glorious gospel of the blessed God (v. 11
Instruct, see 1.5, 18; 4.11
Training, literally “household law.” See 3.4–5, 12, 15; 5.13–14
The vices roughly follow the order of the Ten Commandments.
Examples and counter-examples. The example of one in service of the gospel (vv. 12–17
) contrasts with those who still need to be taught not to blaspheme (vv. 18–20
Autobiographical reflections begin with thanksgiving (v. 12
) and end with praise (v. 17
), anticipating the salvation of others (
) just as the writer was saved from ignorance because of the patience of Jesus.
The saying is sure,
see 3.1; 4.9
, a contrast between Timothy's character and the false teachers.
Shipwreck, as if the teachers have steered off course.
Hymenaeus, see 2 Tim 2.17
. Alexander, see 2 Tim 4.14
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