introduction. These verses tie the following poetic material into the narrative context of Dan 3.23
. Only Azariah speaks in the version of Theodotion, whereas all three youths speak in the Septuagint.
Azariah's prayer. The prayer includes various elements of the communal or national lament
form of the psalms (Ps 44; 74; 79; 80; see Neh 9; Dan 9.4–20; Bar 1.15–3.8
Introductory invocation of God and God's righteous attributes.
A confession of sin that acknowledges God's justice in bringing about punishment.
An unjust king, Nebuchadnezzar or Antiochus IV.
An appeal for God to show mercy and to restore the covenant.
For your name's sake,
Ezek 20.13–17; 36.22–23; see also Ex 32.11–15; Num 14.13–19
The psalmist cites the covenant with Abraham as the basis for the appeal (Gen 22.17
The stoking of the furnace. This brief prose interlude continues the hyperbole
of the Daniel narrative
to enhance the miraculous deliverance of the three young men.
The Song of the Three Young Jews. This psalm of praise extols God as creator of the universe (see Ps 96; 97; 136; 148
). There is an overall progression from heaven to earth.
A royal enthronement hymn that directly addresses God. The ark in the holy of holies in the Temple
portrays God's throne in heaven (1 Sam 4.4; 2 Sam 6.2; 1 Kings 6.23–28; Ps 18.7–15; 68.33–35
Praise from the creatures of heaven.
Praise from the elements of heaven that affect the earth.
Praise from the creatures of the earth.
Praise from human beings, including Hananiah, Azariah, and Mishael.
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