Pilate's involvement. The Roman governor came from Caesarea to Jerusalem at Passover.
Judas's death. A scene unique to Matthew, Judas's death evokes the suicide of Ahithophel, who betrayed David (2 Sam 17
). According to Acts, Judas dies a much less dignified death. In both accounts, the death is linked to the purchase of a field for the burial of foreigners.
See Zech 11.12–13; Jer 18.1–3; 32.6–15
Awaiting the promise.
The exaltation of Jesus.
These verses provide a resumption of the story as it ends in the first book of The Gospel according to Luke (see comments on Lk 1.1–4; 24.36–53
) and anticipate the first episodes of Acts.
whom he had chosen were specifically the twelve (Lk 6.13; 9.1; 22.30
), now without Judas (
indicates that both physical signs and scriptural interpretation
are combined in these convincing proofs, entailing appearances and persuasive witness to the kingdom of God with Jesus attested as the messiah
of this dominion straight through Acts (
The promise of the Father was given at Pentecost
2.1–47; see v. 33
On the contrast between John's baptism
with water and the baptism with the Holy Spirit,
see also Lk 3.16–17, 21–22; Acts 18.25; 19.2–6
Israel hoped God would accomplish the restoration in accord with prophetic
promises (Isa 49.6; Jer 29.14
The promised restoration is assumed, but the times or periods that the Father has set are not open to human knowledge, except that the kingdom is near (Mk 13.32; Lk 21.31
This power is a sign of divine authority (
), the agency of the Holy Spirit, not the apostles themselves, but their office is that of witnesses to Jesus' resurrection (
). Jerusalem, all Judea and Samaria, are the geographic locations of the opening chapters. The ends of the earth are prophetic symbols of Israel's renewed divine calling (Isa 49.6
The cloud is a sign of divine presence (Lk 9.34
The two men are again heavenly witnesses (Lk 24.4
In being taken up (
), Jesus accomplishes his “departure” (Lk 9.31
) and is exalted by God to heavenly rule (Acts 7.56
Restoring the twelve.
On the named apostles,
see also Lk 6.13–16
Luke again draws attention to the presence of the women at a critical occasion of God's action (Lk 8.1–3; 23.49; 23.5–10
), specifically Jesus' mother Mary (Lk 1.35
Peter again affirms that the scripture had to be fulfilled (Lk 24.25–26, 44–47
), and his first speech in Acts is a scriptural testimony interpreting what has happened on the basis of Ps 69.25
On Judas' active conspiracy, see Lk 22.3–6, 47–48
. On his death, compare Mt 27.5
On the baptism
of John as Jesus' anointing
by God, see Lk 3.21–22; Acts 10.38
). To be a witness to his resurrection (Gk., “martyr”
) will bring suffering and death even to those who were not “eyewitnesses” from the beginning (Lk 1.1; Acts 7; 24.14–21
Neither Joseph called Barsabbas nor Matthias is ever mentioned again in the New Testament.
Casting lots was a traditional Jewish practice for discerning God's choice (Lev 16.8; Num 26.55; 33.54; Josh 19
). The eleven must be restored to twelve because of Israel's twelve tribes (Lk 5.13; 9.1; 22.30; Acts 26.7
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