Traditionally, these verses have been taken as the prophet's complaint against the internal evils of Judah; the language used
is that employed by Amos, Isaiah, and Jeremiah to condemn the social abuses of their day. In vv 5ff
the Lord answers this complaint by indicating the Chaldean empire as his instrument for punishing his people for these sins.
Look over the nations and see: after Nebuchadnezzar's defeat of Egypt in 605 B.C., there could be little doubt that it was the Chaldean ambition to dominate the entire Near East.
Wolves at evening: the wolf is apparently thought of as more rabid and vicious in the evening when setting out for prey (Jer 5, 6; Zep 3, 3
Veers like the wind: the conquests of the ancient Near East were mainly raiding expeditions to collect tribute. As far as
administration of conquered territories was concerned, both the Assyrians and Chaldeans were usually content to install friendly
rulers and then depart. This culprit: though the Chaldeans were used by God as the agents of his punishment, this did not
diminish their own guilt as ruthless marauders.
It is generally thought that this complaint is directed against the Chaldeans and their terrible destruction. But it may well
be a continuation of Hb 1, 2–4
, against the wicked Judahites who have merited God's punishment.
O Rock: an ancient title celebrating the Lord's power; cf Ps 18, 32
The he of this and the following verses, to whom is attributed such extensive evil and the destruction of many peoples, may
be the wicked of Judah embodied in King Jehoiakim, ally of the powerful Pharaoh Neco of Egypt; the devastation wrought by
Jehoiakim and Neco together is condemned.
He sacrifices to his net: in v 15
the wicked ruler in question is represented as catching men in a net. This verse alludes to some rite involving the sacrificial
veneration of the weapons of war.
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