Sons of Israel: here literally the first generation sons of Jacob. Cf v 5
. However, beginning with Ex 1, 7
the same Hebrew phrase refers to the more remote descendants of Jacob; hence, from there on, it is ordinarily rendered as
“the Israelites.” Households: the family in its fullest sense, including wives, children and servants.
The sons of Jacob are listed here according to the respective mothers. Cf Gn 29, 31; 30, 30; 35, 16–26
Direct descendants: literally, persons coming from the loins of Jacob; hence, wives and servants are here excluded. Cf Gn 46, 26
Who knew nothing of Joseph: this king ignored the services that Joseph had rendered to Egypt.
Pharaoh: not a personal name, but a title common to all the kings of Egypt.
Mortar: either the wet clay with which the bricks were made, as in Na 3, 14
, or the cement used between the bricks in building, as in Gn 11, 3
And see them giving birth: the Hebrew text is uncertain.
The river: the Nile, which was “the” river for the Egyptians.
Your access is brought to you by: