Travellers and Maps
The era of the Crusades led to new interest in Palestine, revealed in travellers' and chroniclers' accounts, and especially in the development of maps of Palestine (cf. especially the Matthew Paris map of 1252, and the Sanuto and Vesconti map of 1320, and that of the English traveller William Wey in 1462; see Nebenzahl 1986). The first printed atlas was the Geographia of the second-century Claudius Ptolemaeus (Rome 1478, Ulm 1482 and 1486), which included Nicolas Germanus's version of Ptolemy's original Quarta tabula Asiae; alongside it in the Ulm editions appeared a much fuller, fifteenth-century Tabula Moderna Terrae Sanctae (Dilke 1985: 162). Ptolemy's scientific work was foundational until surveying by triangulation and the exact calculation of longitude were achieved in the seventeenth century, though individual travellers contributed to improvements in detail. The maps published by sixteenth-century map-makers like Gerardus Mercator, Abraham Ortelius, and Christian von Adrichom, and works of biblical scholarship like Thomas Fuller's A Pisgah-sight of Palestine (1650) and Adrian Reland's Palestina ex monumentis veteribus illustrata (1714) were an important prerequisite to the work of seventeenth- to eighteenth-century scholarly travellers. Such travellers included Pietro della Valle, who in 1650–8 travelled widely in the Near East, correctly identifying Ur with Tell el-Mukayyar; Henry Maundrell (1665–1701), whose Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem (1703) is observant and illustrated with drawings and plans; and Bishop Richard Pococke (1704–65), who published A Description of the East and Some Other Countries (1745). Robert Wood (1717–71), by his accurate reports and architectural drawings of the ruins of Palmyra (1753), and Baalbek (1757) set new standards for future Near Eastern archaeologists.