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The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies Provides a comprehensive survey of Biblical scholarship in a variety of disciplines.




Lambert, W. G. 1978. The Background of Jewish Apocalyptic: Ethel M. Wood Lecture 1977. London: Athlone Press.


Burstein, S. M. 1978. the babyloniaca of berossus: sources and monographs, sources from the ancient near east i. 5. Malibu, Calif.: Undena.

Travellers, early excavation, and decipherment

Rogers, R. W. 1901. A History of Babylonia and Assyria, 2nd edn. New York: Eaton and Mains, i. 1–253.

History (i)

Sumerian King List

Edzard, D. O. 1980–3. ‘Königslisten und Chroniken, A. Sumerisch’. In Reallexikon der Assyriologie, vi. 77–84.

Steinkeller, P. 2003. ‘An Ur III Manuscript of the Sumerian King List’. In W. Sallaberger, K. Volk, and A. Zgoll, eds., Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 267–92.

Sumerian flood story

Civil, M. 1969. In Lambert and Millard (1969), 138–45, 167–72.

Atra-hasis Epic

Lambert, W. G., and Millard, A. R. 1969. Atra-h̬asīs: The Babylonian Story of the Flood. Oxford: Clarendon Press; repr. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1999.

Gilgamesh Epic

George, A. R. 2003. The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ancestors of Ammi-ṣaduqa

Charpin, D., and Durand, J.-M. 1986. ‘Fils de Sim'al: Les Origines tribales des rois de Mari’. Revue d'Assyriologie, 80: 141–83.

Finkelstein, J. J. 1966. ‘The Genealogy of the Hammurapi Dynasty’. Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 20: 95–118.

Assyrian King List

Grayson, A. K. 1980–3. ‘Königslisten und Chroniken, B, Akkadisch, § 3.9 King List 9. Assyrian King List’. In Reallexikon der Assyriologie, vi: 101–16.

History (ii)

Mari and the Amorites

Fleming, D. E. 1998. ‘Mari and the Possibilities of Biblical Memory’. Revue d'Assyriologie, 92: 41–78.

Malamat, A. 1989. Mari and the Early Israelite Experience, Schweich Lectures 1984. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sasson, J. M. 1998. ‘About “Mari and the Bible” ’. Revue d'Assyriologie, 92: 97–123.

History (iii) a: Assyrian royal inscriptions

General Survey

Lambert, W. G. 2004. ‘Mesopotanian Sources and Pre-exilic Israel’. In J. Day, ed., In Search of Pre-exilic Israel, London and New York: Continuum, 352–65.

Editions with translations

Grayson, A. K. 1996. Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium BC, ii: 858–745 BC. The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Assyrian periods, 3. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: University of Toronto Press.

Tadmor, H. 1994. The Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III King of Assyria. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Translations of relevant excerpts with brief notes

Borger, R. 1984. In O. Kaiser, Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, i, Güttersloh: Gerd Mohn, 354–410.

Excerpts edited with full discussion

Kuan, J. K. 1995. Neo-Assyrian Historical Inscriptions and Syria-Palestine. Jian Dao Dissertation Series 1, Bible and Literature 1. Hong Kong: Alliance Bible Seminary.

History (iii) b: Assyrian līmu lists

Millard, A. 1994. The Eponyms of the Assyrian Empire, 910–612 BC. State Archives of Assyria Studies ii. Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project.

History (iii) c: Babylonian Chronicles

Grayson, A. K. 1975. Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles. Texts from Cuneiform Sources V. Locust Valley, NY: J. J. Augustin.


Translations of the codes with brief notes

Roth, M. T. 1995. Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Writings from the Ancient World, Society of Biblical Literature, 6. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

Edition of edicts with full discussion

Kraus, F. R. 1984. Königliche Verfügungen in altbabylonischer Zeit. Studia et Documenta ad Iura Orientis Antiqui Pertinentia, II. Leiden: Brill.

Late use of Hammurabi's laws

Lambert, W. G. 1989. ‘The Laws of Hammurabi in the First Millennium’. In M. Lebeau and P. Talon, eds., Reflets des deux fleuves, Akkadica, supp. VI, Leuven: Peeters, 95–8.

Nuzi customs

Eichler, B. L. 1989. ‘Nuzi and the Bible: A Retrospective’. In H. Behrens, D. Loding, and M. T. Roth, eds., DUMU-E2-DUB-BA-A: Studies in Honor of Åke W. Sjöberg, Occasional Publications of the Samuel Noah Kramer Fund, 11, Philadelphia: University Museum, Philadelphia, 107–19.


Gilgamesh Epic: see above under History (i).

Variant incantations, Sumerian and Babylonian

Lambert, W. G. 1974. ‘Dingir.šà.dib.ba Incantations’. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 35: 267–322.

The phrase ‘dead dog’ Hebrew in 2 Sam. 9: 8 and 16: 9; Babylonian and Assyrian

Oppenheim, A. L., et al. 1971. The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, viii K. Chicago: Oriental Institute, Chicago. 72 b.

Daniel 11

Lambert, W. G. 1978. Work listed above under ‘Eupolemus’, 7–17.


Babylonian monotheism

Lambert, W. G. 1975. ‘The Historical Development of the Mesopotamian Pantheon: A Study in Sophisticated Polytheism’. In H. Goedicke and J. J. Roberts, eds., Unity and Diversity: Essays in the History, Literature, and Religion of the Ancient Near East, Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 191–200.

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