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The Oxford Bible Commentary Line-by-line commentary for the New Revised Standard Version Bible.

The Date of 4 Ezra.

The book can be fairly securely dated by aligning the known facts of Roman history with the eagle vision of chs. 11–12 , just as we can date the book of Daniel by running through its ch. 11 to the point where history ends and prediction begins. The point where the accurate history stops in 4 Ezra and the prediction begins seems to be near the end of Domitian's reign (81–96) towards the middle of the 90S CE. One other factor confirms a date for this apocalypse towards the end of the first century CE: in 3:1 and 3:29 the author sets these supposed visions of Ezra thirty years after the destruction of Jerusalem. In the pseudonymous structure of the book this refers to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians in 587 BCE. However, the real reference point of the book is to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE. The span of thirty years seems to come from Ezek 1:1 , but is the author's choice of this date due to his own distance from the seminal event of his lifetime?

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Oxford University Press

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