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The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible A richly illustrated account of the story of the Bible written by leading scholars.

Further Reading

General Reference

D. N. Freedman (ed.), The Anchor Bible Dictionary, 6 vols. (New York, 1992).

P. R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans (eds.), The Cambridge History of the Bible, i. From the Beginnings to Jerome (Cambridge, 1970).

G. W. H. Lampe (ed.), The Cambridge History of the Bible, ii. The West from the Fathers to the Reformation (Cambridge 1969).

S. L. Greenslade (ed.), The Cambridge History of the Bible, iii. The West from the Reformation to the Present Day (Cambridge 1963).

J. B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3rd edn. (Princeton, 1969).

B. M. Metzger and M. D. Coogan (eds.), The Oxford Companion to the Bible (New York, 1993).

H. C. Kee, E. M. Myers, J. Rogerson, and A. J. Saldarini, The Cambridge Companion to the Bible (Cambridge, 1997).

D. L. Jeffrey, A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1992).

R. J. Coggins and J. L. Houlden, A Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation (London, 1990).

1. Old Testament Background

G. I. Davies, Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance (Cambridge, 1991).

N. Gottwald, The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of Liberated Israel, 1250–1050 B.C.E. (London, 1979).

D. W. Jamieson-Drake, Scribes and Schools in Monarchic Judah: A Socio-Historical Approach (Sheffield, 1991).

J. W. Rogerson (ed.), Beginning Old Testament Study (London, 1998).

———and P. Davies, The Old Testament World (Cambridge, 1989).

G. Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (London, 1998).

2. The Apocrypha

J. H. Charlesworth (ed.), ‘Apocrypha’ in Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York, 1983), i. 292–4.

J. C. Dancy, The Shorter Books of the Apocrypha (Cambridge, 1972).

D. Ewert, From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations: A General Introduction to the Bible (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1983).

B. M. Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha (New York, 1957).

3. The New Testament

J. K. Elliott, ‘Manuscript, the Codex and the Canon’, Journal for the Study of the New Testament, 63 (1996), 105–23.

H. Y. Gamble, Books and Readers in the Early Church: A History of Early Christian Texts (London, 1995).

E. Hennecke, The New Testament Apocrypha (ed. W. Schneemelcher and J. Clark) 2 vols. (Louisville, Ky, 1991, 1993).

B. M. Metzger The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance (Oxford, 1987).

4. The Hebrew Bible

P. S. Alexander, ‘Jewish Aramaic translations of Hebrew scriptures’, in M. J. Mulder (ed.), Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (Assen/Maastricht/Philadelphia, 1988), 217–53.

F. I. Andersen and A. D. Forbes, Spelling in the Hebrew Bible (Rome, 1986).

J. Barr, Comparative Philology and the Text of the Old Testament (Oxford, 1968), 194–222.

B. Chiesa, The Emergence of Hebrew Biblical Pointing: The Indirect Sources (Frankfurt am Main/Cirencester, 1978).

M. B. Cohen, The System of Accentuation in the Hebrew Bible (Minneapolis, 1969).

F. M. Cross and S. Talmon (eds.), Qumran and the History of the Biblical Text (Cambridge, Mass., 1975).

M. Fishbane, Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel (Oxford, 1985).

C. D. Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible, proleg. H. M. Orlinsky (New York, 1966).

L. L. Grabbe, ‘Survey of literature on the authenticity of Masoretic vocalization’, in Comparative Philology and the Text of Job: A Study in Methodology (Missoula, Mont., 1977), 179–97.

P. Kahle, The Cairo Genizah, 2nd edn. (Oxford 1959).

G. Khan, ‘Tiberian Hebrew Phonology’, in A. S. Kaye (ed.), Phonologies of Asia and Africa (Winona Lake, Minn., 1977), 85–102.

———‘The Syllabic Nature of Tiberian Hebrew Vocalization’, in A. S. Kaye (ed.), Semitic Studies in Honor of Wolf Leslau (Wiesbaden, 1991).

———‘The Medieval Karaite Transcriptions of Hebrew in Arabic Script’, Israel Oriental Studies, 12 (1992), 157–76.

———‘The Tiberian Pronunciation Tradition of Biblical Hebrew’, Zeitschrift für Althebraistik, 9 (1996), 1–23.

S. Kogut, Correlations between Biblical Accentuation and Traditional Jewish Exegesis: Linguistic and Contextual Studies (Jerusalem, 1994).

S. Leiman, The Canonization of Hebrew Scripture: The Talmudic and Midrashic Evidence (Flamden, 1976).

C. McCarthy, The Tiqqune Sopherim and Other Theological Corrections in the Masoretic Text of the Old Testament (Freiburg/Göttingen, 1981).

E. J. Revell, Biblical Texts with Palestinian Pointing and their Accents (Missoula, Mont., 1977).

———Hebrew Texts with Palestinian Vocalization (Toronto, 1970).

S. Talmon, ‘The Three Scrolls of the Law that were Found in the Temple Court’, Textus, 2 (1962), 14–27.

———‘The Old Testament Text’, in P. R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans (eds.), The Cambridge History of the Bible, i. (Cambridge, 1970), 159–99.

E. Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (Minneapolis/Assen/Maastricht, 1992).

———The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research, 2nd edn., rev. and enlarged (Jerusalem, 1997).

E. Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica, tr. E. F. Rhodes from Der Text des Alten Testaments—Eine Einführung in die Biblia Hebraica von Rudolf Kittel, 4th edn. (Stuttgart, 1973; London, 1980).

I. Yeivin, Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah, tr. and ed. E. J. Revell (Missoula, Mont., 1980).

5. The Apocrypha

Articles on the books dealt with in this chapter in the Anchor Bible Dictionary and J. H. Charlesworth (ed.), Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (New York, 1983).

6. The New Testament

There are two excellent introductions to the text of the New Testament:

K. and B. Aland, The Text of the New Testament, 2nd edn. (Grand Rapids, Mich., and Leiden, 1989). Containing much up-to-date information generated by the Münster Institute, this study is especially strong in describing the materials and in its study of various textual problems according to the editorial principles behind the Nestle-Aland text.

B. M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1968; or 3rd edn., Oxford, 1992). This gives a description of the manuscripts and other materials, a history of the discipline, and a discussion of textual methods and problems. It is the best traditional introduction.

See also:

B. D. Ehrman and M. W. Holmes, The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research: Essays on the Status Quaestionis. A Volume in Honor of Bruce M. Metzger (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1995). A collection of ‘state of the art’ studies by experts in the various fields of study.

D. C. Parker, The Living Text of the Gospels (Cambridge, 1997). An introduction along new lines, which studies the materials and a number of passages in the light of the question whether there is an ‘original’ text. No knowledge of Greek is required to understand it.

More generally, the whole history of the text and versions is covered in various sections of The Cambridge History of the Bible, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1963–70).

There are a number of general introductions to Greek and Latin palaeography. For a book more precisely on the former as it applies to the New Testament, see:

B. M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Palaeography (New York/Oxford, 1981).

For Latin manuscripts:

M. T. Gibson, The Bible in the Latin West (The Medieval Book 1; Notre Dame, Ind./London, 1993).

Other books on subjects discussed above:

H. Y. Gamble, Books and Readers in the Early Church: A History of Early Christian Texts (New Haven, 1995). An excellent study of the use and context of early Christian manuscripts.

B. M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek NT, 2nd edn. (Stuttgart, 1994).

W. L. Petersen, Tatian's Diatessaron: Its Creation, Dissemination, Significance, and History in Scholarship, Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae, 25 (Leiden, 1994).

F. H. A. Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament for the Use of Biblical Students, 2 vols.; 4th edn., rev. E. Miller (London/New York/Cambridge, 1894). Outdated both in theory and in its list of materials, it still provides the fullest history of scholarship.

Among other kinds of material, there is the video The Desert Speaks: The World of Papyrus, produced by the Institut für Neutestamentliche Bibelwissenschaft, Salzburg, which tells the story of the great papyrus finds and illustrates the process of conservation.

There are outstanding permanent exhibitions of biblical manuscripts and incunabula in various libraries, including the British Library (where Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus, the Lindisfarne Gospels, and other treasures may be seen), Trinity College, Dublin (The Book of Kells), and the Chester Beatty Collection, Dublin (a great variety of books and manuscripts).

7. Modern Translations

F. F. Bruce, History of the Bible in English: From the Earliest Versions (New York, 1978).

D. Ewert, From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1983).

F. C. Grant, Translating the Bible (Edinburgh, 1961).

E. A. Nida, Toward a Science of Translating, with Special Reference to Principles and Procedures involved in Bible Translating (Leiden, 1964).

———and C. R. Taber, The Theory and Practice of Translation (Leiden, 1969).

H. Pope, English Versions of the Bible (St Louis, 1952).

S. E. Porter and R. H. Hess (eds.), Translating the Bible: Problems and Prospects (Sheffield, 1999).

E. H. Robertson, The New Translations of the Bible (London, 1959).

S. M. Sheeley and R. N. Nash, Jr., The Bible in English Translation: An Essential Guide (Nashville, 1997).

L. A. Weigle with C. F. D. Moule, ‘English Versions since 1611, with a Note on the New English Bible’, in The Cambridge History of the Bible, ii. The West from the Reformation to the Present Day (Cambridge, 1963), 361–82.

The Prefaces to the various translations often provide much useful information. Several committee-based translations have also published explanations of their work. These have been prepared for the Revised Version by several of those who participated, the Revised Standard Version, the New English Bible, and the New International Version, among others.

8. The Early Church

P. R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans (eds.), The Cambridge History of the Bible, i. From the Beginnings to Jerome (Cambridge, 1970).

P. R. L. Brown, Augustine of Hippo (London, 1967).

R. M. Grant and D. Tracy, A Short History of the Interpretation of the Bible, 2nd edn. (Minneapolis, 1989.).

J. N. D. Kelly, Jerome: His Life, Writings and Controversies (London, 1975).

M. Sæbø (ed.), Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: The History of its Interpretation, i. 1. Antiquity (Göttingen, 1996).

M. Simonetti, Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church: An Historical Introduction to Patristic Exegesis (Edinburgh, 1994).

9. The Middle Ages to the Reformation

G. R. Evans, The Logic and Language of the Bible, i. The Earlier Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1984); ii. The Road to Reformation (Cambridge, 1985).

G. W. H. Lampe (ed.), The Cambridge History of the Bible, ii. The West from the Fathers to the Reformation (Cambridge, 1969).

J. Leclercq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture (New York, 1962).

B. Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1952; 3rd edn., 1983).

10. The Reformation to 1700

M. W. Anderson, The Battle for the Gospel: The Bible and the Reformation, 1444–1589 (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1978).

G. Bedouelle and B. Roussel (eds.), Le Temps des Réformes et la Bible (Bible de tous les temps, 5; Paris, 1989).

F. F. Bruce, The English Bible (London, 1961).

S. L. Greenslade (ed.), The Cambridge History of the Bible, iii. The West from the Reformation to the Present Day (Cambridge, 1963).

D. K. McKim (ed.), Handbook of Major Historical Interpreters of the Bible (Downers Grove, Ill, 1998).

T. H. L. Parker, Calvin's Preaching (Edinburgh, 1992).

———Calvin's Old Testament Commentaries (Edinburgh, 1986).

———Calvin's New Testament Commentaries, 2nd edn. (Edinburgh, 1993).

J. Pelikan, Luther the Expositor: Introduction to his Exegetical Writings (St Louis, 1959).

A. Rabil, Jr., Erasmus and the New Testament: The Mind of a Christian Humanist (San Antonio, Tex., 1972)

D. Wilson, The People and the Book: The Revolutionary Impact of the English Bible, 1380–1611 (London, 1976).

D. F. Wright (ed.), The Bible in Scottish Life and Literature (Edinburgh, 1988).

11. 1700 to the Present

General Studies of the Period

W. Baird, The Interpretation of the New Testament, i. From Deism to Tübingen (Minneapolis, 1992).

J. Barton and R. Morgan, The Interpretation of the Bible (Oxford, 1988).

J. Drury (ed.), Critics of the Bible, 1724–1873, Cambridge English Prose Texts (Cambridge, 1989).

W. G. Kümmel, The New Testament: The History of the Investigation of its Problems (London, 1973).

N. Smart and J. P. Clayton (eds.), Nineteenth-Century Religious Thought in the West, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1985), esp. vol. iii. Biblical Interpretation and Modern Science.

B. Willey, The Eighteenth-Century Background: Studies in the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period (London, 1940).

Biblical and Historical Criticism

S. Neill and T. Wright, The Interpretation of the New Testament, 1861–1986 (Oxford, 1988).

J. W. Rogerson, Old Testament Criticism in the Nineteenth Century: England and Germany (London, 1984).

E. S. Schaffer, ‘Kubla Khan’ and the Fall of Jerusalem: The Mythological School in Biblical Criticism and Secular Literature, 1770–1880 (Cambridge, 1975).

B. Willey, Nineteenth-Century Studies: Coleridge to Matthew Arnold (London, 1949).

Popular Interpretation and Use of the Bible

G. M. Marsden, Fundamentalism: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism, 1870–1925 (New York, 1980).

B. Thwaite and T. Thornton, Prophecy, Themes in History (Stroud, 1997).

T. P. Weber, Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming: American Premillenialism, 1875–1982, rev. edn. (Chicago, 1983).

D. F. Wright (ed.), The Bible in Scottish Life and Literature (Edinburgh, 1988).

12. The Eastern Churches

Apostolos Athanssakis, The Life of Pachomius, Early Christian Literature Series, 2 (Missoula, Mont., 1975).

P. M. Blowers (ed.), The Bible in Greek Christian Antiquity (Notre Dame, Ind., 1997).

J. Chrysostom, Discourse against Judaizing Christians, tr. Paul W. Harkins, The Fathers of the Church, 68 (Washington, DC, 1977).

Pseudo-Dionysius, The Complete Works: The Classics of Western Spirituality (London, 1987).

J. Leclerq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture (New York, 1962).

Origen of Alexandria, Commentary on the Gospel According to John Books 1–10, tr. R. E. Heine, The Fathers of the Church, 80 (Washington, DC; 1989).

———Commentary on the Gospel According to John Books 13–23, tr. R. E. Heine, The Fathers of the Church, 89 (Washington, DC, 1993).

Theophylact Bishop of the Ochrid and Bulgaria, The Explanation of the Holy Gospels, 4 vols. (House Springs, Miss., 1997).

Pachomian Koinonia, The Lives, Rules and other Writings of Saint Pachomius and his Disciples, 3 vols. Cistercian Studies Series, 45, 46, 47 (Kalamazoo, Mich., 1980–2).

E. Werner, The Sacred Bridge: Liturgical Parallels in Synagogue and Early Church (New York, 1970).

F. Yates, The Art of Memory (Chicago, 1966).

13. The Bible in Judaism

E. R. Bevan and C. Singer (eds.), The Legacy of Israel (Oxford, 1927).

C. Pearl, Rashi (London, 1988).

M. Sæbø (ed.), Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: The History of its Interpretation, i. 1. Antiquity (Göttingen, 1996).

E. Silberschlag, From Renaissance to Renaissance: Hebrew Literature from 1492–1970 (New York, 1973).

C. Sirat, A History of Jewish Philosophy in the Middle Ages (Cambridge/Paris, 1985).

M. Steinschneider, Jewish Literature from the Eighth to the Eighteenth Century (New York, 1965)

F. E. Talmage, David Kimhi: The Man and his Commentaries (Cambridge, Mass., 1975).

14. The Bible in Literature

T. S. Eliot, ‘Religion and Literature’, Selected Essays, 3rd edn. (London, 1951).

O. B. Hardison, Jr., Christian Rite and Christian Drama in the Middle Ages (Baltimore, 1965).

D. Jasper, The Sacred and Secular Canon in Romanticism: Preserving the Sacred Truths (London, 1998).

D. Norton, A History of the Bible as Literature, i (Cambridge, 1993).

S. Prickett, Origins of Narrative: The Romantic Appropriation of the Bible (Cambridge, 1996).

B. Qualls, The Secular Pilgrims of Victorian Fiction (Cambridge, 1982).

W. Tyndale, ‘W. T. unto the Reader’, in D. Daniell (ed.), Tyndale's New Testament: Modern-Spelling Edition (New Haven, 1995).

T. Ziolkowski, Fictional Transfigurations of Jesus (Princeton 1972).

15. Feminist Scholarship


E. Schüssler Fiorenza (ed.), Searching the Scriptures, i. A Feminist Introduction (London, 1994).

———(ed.), Searching the Scriptures, ii. A Feminist Commentary (London, 1995). This includes E. Castelli on Romans and S. Briggs on Galatians.

C. A. Newsom and S. H. Ringe (eds.), The Women's Bible Commentary (London, 1992). This includes J. Romney Wegner on Leviticus and J. Schaberg on Luke.

E. Cady Stanton (ed.), The Woman's Bible: The Original Feminist Attack on the Bible (first published 1895; Edinburgh, 1985).

Work by individual authors

A. Bach, Women, Seduction, and Betrayal in Biblical Narrative (Cambridge, 1997).

A. Y. Collins (ed.), Feminist Perspectives on Biblical Scholarship (Chicago, 1985).

T. Dennis, Sarah Laughed: Women's Voices in the Old Testament (London, 1994).

E. Schüssler Fiorenza, In Memory of Her: A Feminist Theological Reconstruction of Christian Origins (London, 1983).

A. Loades, Searching for Lost Coins (London, 1987).

C. Meyers, Discovering Eve: Ancient Israelite Women in Context (Oxford, 1988).

Y. M. Sherwood, The Prostitute and the Prophet: Hosea's Marriage in Literary-Theoretical Perspective (Sheffield, 1996).

P. Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality (London, 1978).

———Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives (Philadelphia, 1984).

R. J. Weems, Battered Love: Marriage, Sex, and Violence in the Hebrew Prophets (Minneapolis, 1995).

16. Liberation Theology (a) Latin America

P. Berryman, Stubborn Hope: Religion, Politics, and Revolution in Central America (New York, 1994).

M. D. Carroll R., Contexts for Amos: Prophetic Poetics in Latin American Perspective (Sheffield, 1992).

———‘God and his People within History and among the Nations: Considerations for a Contextualized Reading of Amos 1 & 2 from Latin America’, Tyndale Bulletin, 47/1 (1996), 49–70.

G. Cook, Crosscurrents in Indigenous Spirituality: Interface of Maya, Catholic and Protestant Worldviews, Studies in Christian Mission, 18 (Leiden, 1997).

J. S. Croatto, Exodus: A Hermeneutics of Freedom (Maryknoll, NY, 1981).

———Biblical Hermeneutics: Toward a Theory of Reading as the Production of Meaning (Maryknoll, NY, 1987).

G. Gutiérrez, On Job: God-Talk and the Suffering of the Innocent (Maryknoll, NY, 1987).

C. Mesters, Defenseless Flower: A New Reading of the Bible (Maryknoll, NY, 1989).

J. Míguez Bonino, Christians and Marxists: The Mutual Challenge to Revolution (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1976).

J. P. Miranda, Marx and the Bible: A Critique of the Philosophy of Oppression (c, 1974).

J. Pixley, On Exodus: A Liberation Perspective (Maryknoll, NY, 1987).

———Biblical History: A People's History (Minneapolis, 1992).

C. Rowland and M. Corner, Liberating Exegesis: The Challenge of Liberation Theology to Biblical Studies, Biblical Foundations in Theology (London, 1990).

J. L. Segundo, The Liberation of Theology (Maryknoll, NY, 1984).

———Faith and Ideologies: Jesus of Nazareth Yesterday and Today, i (Maryknoll, NY, 1984).

J. Sobrino, Jesus the Liberator: A Historical-Theological Reading of Jesus of Nazareth (Maryknoll, NY, 1993)

E. Tamez, Bible of the Oppressed (Maryknoll, NY, 1981).

———The Scandalous Message of James: Faith without Works is Dead (New York, 1990).

———The Amnesty of Grace: Justification by Faith from a Latin American Perspective (Nashville, 1993).

L. E. Vaage, Subversive Scriptures: Revolutionary Readings of the Christian Bible in Latin America (Valley Forge, Pa., 1997).

(b) Africa

D. T. Adamo, Africa and the Africans in the Old Testament (San Francisco, 1998).

K. Appiah-Kubi and S. Torres (eds.), African Theology en route: Papers from the Pan-African Conference of Third World Theologians, Accra, December 17–23, 1977 (Maryknoll, NY, 1977).

K. Bediako, ‘Epilogue’, in Y. Schaaf, On their Way Rejoicing: The History and Role of the Bible in Africa (Carlisle, 1994), 243–54.

P. Frostin, Liberation Theology in Tanzania and South Africa: A First World Interpretation (Lund, 1988).

E. Isichei, A History of Christianity in Africa: From Antiquity to the Present (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1995)

T. S. Maluleke, ‘Black and African Theologies in the New World Order’, Journal of Theology for South Africa, 96 (1996), 3–19.

T. A. Mofokeng, ‘Black Christians, the Bible and Liberation’, Journal of Black Theology 2 (1988), 34–42.

I. J. Mosala, ‘Race, Class, and Gender as Hermeneutical Factors in the African Independent Churches' Appropriation of the Bible’, Semeia, 73 (1996), 43–57.

———and B. Tlhagale (eds.), The Unquestionable Right to be Free (Johannesburg, 1986).

N. Ndungu, ‘The Bible in an African Independent Church’, in H. W. Kinoti and J. M. Waliggo (eds.), The Bible in African Christianity (Nairobi, 1997), 58–67.

Y. Schaaf, On their Way Rejoicing: The History and Role of the Bible in Africa (Carlisle, 1994).

R. S. Sugirtharajah (ed.), Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World (Maryknoll, NY, 1991).

G. O. West, Biblical Hermeneutics of Liberation: Modes of Reading the Bible in the South African Context, rev. edn. (Pietermaritzburg/Maryknoll, NY, 1995).

———The Academy of the Poor: Towards a Dialogical Reading of the Bible (Sheffield, 1999).

V. L. Wimbush, ‘The Bible and African Americans: An Outline of an Interpretative History’, in C. H. Felder (ed.), Stony the Road We Trod: African American Biblical Interpretation (Minneapolis, 1991), 81–97.

(c) Europe

E. Cardenal, The Gospel in Solentiname, 4 vols. (Maryknoll, NY, 1977–84).

M. Clévenot, Materialist Approaches to the Bible (Maryknoll, NY, 1985).

F. Crüsemann, The Torah: Theology and Social History of Old Testament Law (Edinburgh, 1996).

E. Lohse, ‘Das Evangelium für die Armen’, Zeischrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, 72 (1981) 51–64.

C. Rowland and M. Corner, Liberating Exegesis: The Challenge of Liberation Theology to Biblical Studies, 2nd edn. (London, 1991).

T. Schmeller, Das Recht des Anderen. Befreiungstheologische Lektüre des Neuen Testaments in Lateinamerika (Münster, 1994).

L. Schottroff, Lydia's Impatient Sisters: A Feminist Social History of Early Christianity (Louisville, Ky, 1995).

———‘Spirituality in a Household of Deprivation and Affluence: The Perspective of a Western German Feminist Theologian 1995’, Feminist Theology. The Journal of the Britain and Ireland School of Feminist Theology, 13 (1996), 31–46.

———‘Through German and Feminist Eyes: A Liberationist Reading of Luke 7: 36–50 ’, in A. Brenner (ed.), The Feminist Companion to the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament (Sheffield, 1996), 332–41.

———‘Working for Liberation: A Change of Perspective in New Testament Scholarship’, in F. F. Segovia and M. A. Tolbert (eds.), Reading from this Place, ii. Social Location and Biblical Interpretation in Global Perspective (Minneapolis, 1995), 183–98.

W. Schottroff and W. Stegemann (eds.), God of the Lowly: Socio-Historical Interpretations of the Bible (Maryknoll, NY, 1984).

D. Sölle, Political Theology (Philadelphia, 1974).

———Mystik und Widerstand (Hamburg, 1997).

World Council of Churches, Towards a Church in Solidarity with the Poor: Commission on the Churches' Participation in Development (Geneva, 1980).

17. Epilogue

Z. Bauman, Postmodern Ethics (Oxford, 1993).

D. J. A. Clines, Interested Parties: The Ideology of Writers and Readers of the Hebrew Bible (Sheffield, 1995).

M. J. Devaney, ‘Since at least Plato …’ and Other Postmodern Myths (Basingstoke, 1997).

T. Docherty (ed.), Postmodernism: A Reader (New York, 1993).

A. Giddens, ‘Structuralism, Post-Structuralism and the Production of Culture’, in A. Giddens and J. Turner (eds.), Social Theory Today (Cambridge, 1987).

———Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age (Cambridge, 1991).

H. L. Moore, Feminism and Anthropology (Minneapolis, 1988).

M. Morris, ‘Feminism, Reading, Postmodernism’, in Docherty, Postmodernism: A Reader, 368–89

C. Norris, The Truth about Postmodernism (Oxford, 1993).

———Reclaiming Truth: Contribution to a Critique of Cultural Relativism (London, 1996).

J. F. A. Sawyer, ‘Daughter of Zion and Servant of the Lord in Isaiah: A Comparison’, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 44 (1989), 89–107.

G. Steiner, Real Presences: Is There Anything in What We Say? (London, 1989).

P. Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality (Philadelphia, 1978).

G. West, ‘And the Dumb do Speak: Articulating Incipient Readings of the Bible in Marginalized Communities’, in J. W. Rogerson et al. (eds.), The Bible in Ethics: The Second Sheffield Colloquium (Sheffield, 1995), 174–92.

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