1…And there shall come upon them 〈a second〉 retribution and wrath, such as has not befallen them from the beginning until that time, when he will stir up against them the king of the kings of the earth, a man who rules with great power, who will crucify those who confess their circumcision. 2And those who deny it 2 Reading negantes for the necantes of the text. Charles suggested celantes (‘those who conceal it’). Another suggestion is secantes or circumsecantes (‘those who circumcise’ – cp. 1 Macc. i. 61 ). he will torture and put in chains and imprison. 3And their wives will be given to the gods among the Gentiles, and their young sons will be operated on by the doctors to look as though they had not been circumcised. 4And others among them will suffer punishment by torture and fire and sword; and they will be forced to carry round their idols publicly, polluted things, just like the shrines that house 3 Lit. ‘contain’. them. 5And in the same way they will be forced by those who torture them to enter their inmost sanctuary and forced with goads to blaspheme and insult the Name, 4 Text ‘the Word’. and, as if that were not enough, 5 Lit. ‘finally after these things’. the laws as well by having a pig upon the altar.
1 According to Charles, chaps. viii and ix reflect the period of Antiochus Epiphanes and the Maccabees so closely that in their present context they must be out of place: originally, Charles thought, chaps. viii and ix stood between v and vi, and they were transposed ‘by the final editor’. Granted the truth of Charles's observation, however, it may well be (in view of the chaotic state of the existing text) that their present position is due to some accident in the textual tradition rather than deliberate transposition.
3 Lit. ‘contain’.
4 Text ‘the Word’.
5 Lit. ‘finally after these things’.