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The Apocryphal Old Testament Collection of the most important non-canonical Old Testament books designed for general use.

Chapter XXX

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Text Commentary

1And in the first year of the sixth week he went up to Salem, to the east of Shechem, in peace, in the fourth month. 2And there they carried off Dinah, Jacob's daughter, to the house of Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite, the prince of the land; and he lay with her and defiled her (and she was a little girl, a child, only twelve years old). 3And he asked his father and her brothers that she might be given him as his wife. And Jacob and his sons were furious with the Shechemites because they had defiled their sister Dinah, and they determined on revenge, but they kept their counsel and dissimulated. 1 Lit. ‘… Dinah, and they spoke to them with evil intent, and dealt deceitfully with them and beguiled them’.

4And Simeon and Levi came to Shechem without warning, 2 So Eth.: Lat. ‘determined to exterminate them’. and executed judgement on all the Shechemites, and killed every man they found there, and left not a single survivor: they killed them all without mercy, 3 So Eth. (lit. ‘in torment’): Lat. ‘in judgement’. because they had dishonoured their sister Dinah. 5And let no Israelite girl ever be defiled in this way again; for judgement was ordained in heaven against them – that all the Shechemites should perish by the sword, because they had committed an outrage in Israel. 6And the Lord delivered them into the hands of Jacob's sons, so that they might exterminate them with the sword and execute judgement on them, and so that it might not happen again in Israel that an Israelite virgin should be thus defiled.

7And if there is ever a man in Israel who is desirous of giving his daughter or his sister in marriage to a man who is a Gentile, he shall be stoned to death, for he has committed an outrage in Israel, and the woman shall be burned alive, because she has defiled the name of her father's house, and she shall be rooted out of Israel. 8And let no harlot nor any uncleanness be found in Israel at any time; 4 Lit. ‘throughout all the days of the generations of the earth’. for Israel is holy to the Lord, and every man who causes defilement shall be stoned to death. 9For so it has been decreed and written on the heavenly tablets about the stock of Israel in perpetuity 5 Lit. ‘about all the seed of Israel’. – a man who causes defilement shall be stoned to death. 10And to this law there is no time limit, neither can there be any relaxation of it nor substitute 6 Lit. ‘atonement’ (Lat. propitiatio). for it; but the man who has defiled his daughter shall be rooted out before the whole people of Israel, 7 Lit. ‘in the midst of all Israel’. because he has given of his offspring to Moloch, and acted profanely and so defiled it.

11And do you, Moses, command the sons of Israel and exhort them not to give their daughters in marriage to the Gentiles, and not to take for their sons 8 So Lat.: one Eth. MS reads ‘for themselves’, the rest om. altogether. wives of the Gentiles' daughters, for this is abominable to the Lord. 12For this reason I have written for you in the words of the law all the details of what the Shechemites did to Dinah, and how Jacob's sons spoke up and said, We will not give our daughter to a man who is uncircumcised, for that would be a disgrace for us. 13And it is a disgrace for an Israelite 9 Lit. ‘for Israel’. to give his daughter to the Gentiles in marriage and to take the Gentiles' daughters as wives for his sons – for this is unclean and abominable in Israel. 14And Israel will not be free from this uncleanness if anyone has a wife of the Gentiles' daughters, or has given any of his own daughters to a man who is a Gentile. 15For there will follow plague on plague and curse on curse, and every judgement and plague and curse will fall on Israel 10 Supplied on the basis of the Latin ‘on him’. if they 11 Lit. ‘it (he) … its (his)’. do this thing or hide their 11 Lit. ‘it (he) … its (his)’. eyes from those responsible for the uncleanness, 12 Lit. ‘those who commit uncleanness’. or who defile the Lord's sanctuary or profane his holy name: thus the whole nation will be judged together for all this uncleanness and profanation. 13 So Eth.: Lat. ‘for all the abominations and contaminations of this man’. 16And there will be no respect of persons and no consideration of persons, and no receiving at anyone's hands of fruits and offerings and whole-offerings and fat, nor will the sweet smell of his soothing sacrifices be accepted; and so will every man or woman in Israel fare who defiles the sanctuary. 17For this reason I have commanded you, saying, Give Israel this solemn warning: see how the Shechemites fared and their sons: see how they were delivered into the hands of two of Jacob's sons, and how they killed them without mercy, 14 See verse 4 above. and it was reckoned to them as righteousness and accounted to their credit.

18And the descendants of Levi were chosen for the priesthood, and to be Levites, that they might minister before the Lord (as we 15 i.e. the angels. do) continually; and Levi and his sons are blessed for ever, for he showed zeal to execute righteousness and judgement and vengeance on all those who rose up against Israel. 19And so blessing and righteousness are inscribed on the heavenly tablets as a testimony in his favour before the God of all. 20And we remember the righteous acts 16 Lit. ‘righteousness … it’. which the man did in his lifetime, at every period of the year: for a thousand generations they 16 Lit. ‘righteousness … it’. will be recorded, and the blessings resulting from them 17 Lit. ‘and it’. will come upon him and upon his descendants after him; and he has been described in the record on the heavenly tablets as a friend and a righteous man. 21All this account I have written for you, and I have commanded you to tell the sons of Israel not to commit sin nor transgress the commandments nor break the covenant that has been ordained for them, but to keep it and be themselves described as friends. 22But if they transgress and engage in unclean practices of any kind, 18 Lit. ‘act in any of the ways of uncleanness’. they will be described as adversaries and their names 19 Lit. ‘and they will be’. erased from the book of life, and they will be recorded in the book of those who are to be destroyed and uprooted from the earth. 23And on the day when Jacob's sons killed Shechem it was recorded in their favour in heaven that they had executed righteousness and justice and vengeance on the sinners; and it was written as a blessing.

24And they brought their sister Dinah out of Shechem's house, and they laid their hands on everything there was in Shechem, their sheep and their oxen and their asses, and all their flocks and all their wealth, and they brought them all to their father Jacob. 25And he reproached them 20 Lit. ‘spoke to them’. for putting the city to the sword, because he was afraid of the Canaanites and the Perizzites who were living in the land. 26And the dread of the Lord was on all the cities in the neighbourhood of Shechem; and they made no attempt to pursue 21 So Lat.: Eth. ‘expel’. Jacob's sons, for terror had fallen on them.

Notes:

1 Lit. ‘… Dinah, and they spoke to them with evil intent, and dealt deceitfully with them and beguiled them’.

2 So Eth.: Lat. ‘determined to exterminate them’.

3 So Eth. (lit. ‘in torment’): Lat. ‘in judgement’.

4 Lit. ‘throughout all the days of the generations of the earth’.

5 Lit. ‘about all the seed of Israel’.

6 Lit. ‘atonement’ (Lat. propitiatio).

7 Lit. ‘in the midst of all Israel’.

8 So Lat.: one Eth. MS reads ‘for themselves’, the rest om. altogether.

9 Lit. ‘for Israel’.

10 Supplied on the basis of the Latin ‘on him’.

11 Lit. ‘it (he) … its (his)’.

12 Lit. ‘those who commit uncleanness’.

13 So Eth.: Lat. ‘for all the abominations and contaminations of this man’.

14 See verse 4 above.

15 i.e. the angels.

16 Lit. ‘righteousness … it’.

17 Lit. ‘and it’.

18 Lit. ‘act in any of the ways of uncleanness’.

19 Lit. ‘and they will be’.

20 Lit. ‘spoke to them’.

21 So Lat.: Eth. ‘expel’.

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