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The Jewish Study Bible Contextualizes the Hebrew Bible with accompanying scholarly text on Jewish traditions and history.

Chapter 4

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1Now the man knew c Heb. yada‘, often in a sexual sense. his wife Eve, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, “I have gained d Heb. qanithi, connected with “Cain.” a male child with the help of the LORD.” 2 She then bore his brother Abel. Abel became a keeper of sheep, and Cain became a tiller of the soil. 3 In the course of time, Cain brought an offering to the LORD from the fruit of the soil; 4and Abel, for his part, brought the choicest of the firstlings of his flock. The LORD paid heed to Abel and his offering, 5but to Cainand his offering He paid no heed. Cain was much distressed and his face fell. 6And the LORD said to Cain,

“Why are you distressed, And why is your face fallen? 7 a Meaning of verse uncertain. Surely, if you do right, There is uplift. But if you do not do right Sin couches at the door; Its urge is toward you, Yet you can be its master.”

8Cain said to his brother Abel b Ancient versions, including the Targum, read “Come, let us go out into the field.” …and when they were in the field, Cain set upon his brother Abel and killed him. 9 The LORD said to Cain, “Where is your brother Abel?” And he said, “I do not know. Am I my brother's keeper?” 10 Then He said, “What have you done? Hark, your brother's blood cries out to Me from the ground! 11 Therefore, you shall be more cursed than the ground, c See 3.17 . which opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand. 12 If you till the soil, it shall no longer yield its strength to you. You shall become a ceaseless wanderer on earth.”

13Cain said to the LORD, “My punishment is too great to bear! 14 Since You have banished me this day from the soil, and I must avoid Your presence and become a restless wanderer on earth—anyone who meets me may kill me!” 15 The LORD said to him, “I promise, if anyone kills Cain, sevenfold vengeance shall be taken on him.” And the LORD put a mark on Cain, lest anyone who met him should kill him. 16 Cain left the presence of the LORD and settled in the land of Nod, east of Eden.

17Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch. And he then founded a city, and named the city after his son Enoch. 18To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad begot Mehujael, and Mehujael d Heb. Meḥijael. begot Methusael, and Methusael begot Lamech. 19 Lamech took to himself two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other was Zillah. 20 Adah bore Jabal; he was the ancestor of those who dwell in tents and amidst herds. 21 And the name of his brother was Jubal; he was the ancestor of all who play the lyre and the pipe. 22 As for Zillah, she bore Tubal‐cain, who forged all implements of copper and iron. And the sister of Tubal‐cain was Naamah.

23And Lamech said to his wives,

“Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; O wives of Lamech, give ear to my speech. I have slain a man for wounding me, And a lad for bruising me. 24If Cain is avenged sevenfold, Then Lamech seventy‐sevenfold.”

25Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and named him Seth, meaning, “God has a‐ Or “established for me”; Heb. shath, connected with “Seth.” provided me with ‐a Or “established for me”; Heb. shath, connected with “Seth.” another offspring in place of Abel,” for Cain had killed him. 26 And to Seth, in turn, a son was born, and he named him Enosh. It was then that men began to invoke the LORD by name.

Notes:

c Heb. yada‘, often in a sexual sense.

d Heb. qanithi, connected with “Cain.”

a Meaning of verse uncertain.

b Ancient versions, including the Targum, read “Come, let us go out into the field.”

c See 3.17 .

d Heb. Meḥijael.

a‐a Or “established for me”; Heb. shath, connected with “Seth.”

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