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The Jewish Study Bible Contextualizes the Hebrew Bible with accompanying scholarly text on Jewish traditions and history.

Eastern Post‐Maimonidean School (13th Century)

Exegesis in the Middle East after Maimonides bears the unmistakable imprint of the thought of this greatly revered sage. Of great significance are the commentaries of Abraham, Maimonides' son (1186–1237), who was a great scholar, theologian and mystic in his own right. Abraham had hoped to fulfill his father's dream of producing a commentary on the Torah, but succeeded in completing only the first two books. His commentaries are eclectic, devoted in the main to peshat exegesis, in the tradition of scholars and grammarians of Andalusia, but also incorporating philosophical insights, and taking a critical stance vis‐à‐vis midrashic homilies. Abraham was greatly influenced by the pietistic Sufi (Muslim mystical) movement, which spread through Egypt in his day, and his commentaries are suffused with pietism. Indeed, he goes so far as to portray the patriarchs and the prophets as engaging in Sufi‐style meditation and the pursuit of spiritual perfection. Abraham's commentaries, written in Judeo‐Arabic, did not fare well, and survived in a single manuscript, published only in the mid‐20th century.

The last significant peshat exegete in the Mid‐dle East was Tanḥum ben Joseph Yerushalmi (ca. 1220–1291, originally from the land of Israel; died in Egypt). Tanḥum was an anthologist, who compiled the best of the contextual exegesis of his predecessors, including Ibn Ezra, Radak, and Japheth ben Eli and other Karaites, often expressing his preferences. Inhis Kitab al‐Bayan (Book of Explanation), he commented on the entire Bible, but only sections on the Former Prophets, Latter Prophets (except Isaiah), Five Scrolls, Daniel, and parts of Psalms have survived. This work is preceded by an introduction which deals with many principles of scriptural exegesis, such as grammatical issues, textual difficulties, internal contradictions, and problems in chronology. In his commentaries he identifies many rhetorical devices, following in the tradition of Moses Ibn Ezra and other Spanish exegetes. Like Maimonides' son, Abraham, he too was profoundly influenced both by Maimonidean rationalism and by Sufi mysticism. Although primarily concerned with peshat exegesis, he often gives both exoteric and esoteric interpretations to specific passages. In the case of the book of Jonah, he deviates from his normal practice and interprets the entire book as an allegory of the soul.

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