We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more
Select Bible Use this Lookup to open a specific Bible and passage. Start here to select a Bible.
Make selected Bible the default for Lookup tool.
Book: Ch.V. Select book from A-Z list, enter chapter and verse number, and click "Go."
:
OR
  • Previous Result
  • Results
  • Look It Up Highlight any word or phrase, then click the button to begin a new search.
  • Highlight On / Off
  • Next Result

The Jewish Study Bible Contextualizes the Hebrew Bible with accompanying scholarly text on Jewish traditions and history.

Commentary

Some ancient interpretations are more forthright about what they are doing than these reworkings and translations, such as the pesharim found at Qumran, e.g., Pesher Habakkuk [1QpHab]; Pesher Psalms [4Q 171]; Pesher Nahum [4Q 169]; Pesher Hosea [4Q 166 and 4Q 167]; Pesher Isaiah [4Q 161–165]. These compositions clearly distinguish between the biblical texts and their interpretations. In this respect, they differ from Genesis Apocryphon, Jubilees, 1 Enoch, 4 Ezra, and many other Second Temple interpretive texts, and they anticipate later rabbinic midrash. To describe themselves, they use the word (p‐sh‐r), which has a biblical precedent in Daniel, where this verb is used (Dan. 2.5 ff.) to refer to the authorized interpretation of dreams. Consider, for example, this passage from Pesher Habakkuk (1 QpHab VII, 1–8):

And God told Habakkuk to write what was going to happen to the last generation, but he did not let him know the consummation of the era. Blank And as for what he says: “So that /may run/ the one who reads it.” (Hab. 2.2 ) Its interpretation concerns the Teacher of Righteousness, to whom God has made known all the mysteries of the words of His servants, the prophets. (Hab. 2.3 ) For the vision has an appointed time, itwill have an end and not fail. Blank Its interpretation: the final age will be extended and go beyond all that the prophets say, because the mysteries of God are wonderful.

Note that the authority of divine revelation is claimed, not only for the prophetic text, but also for its interpretation, which has been given to the Teacher of Righteousness, a figure of great importance to the Qumran community. In Second Temple biblical interpretation, even when interpretation and text were distinguished, interpretations were not presented as personal opinions, or as plausible solutions to exegetical problems. Instead they were presented as having an authority based on divine revelation, thus as originating in the very same source as the text itself. Thus it might be most appropriate to refer to Sec‐ ond Temple writings not as extrabiblical, but rather as authoritative literature. To be sure, many of the interpretive texts which are contemporaneous with some of the exilic texts in the Bible, although not ultimately included in the Jewish canon, were considered to be inspired and to have assumed scriptural stature in various late Second Temple Jewish communities. However, this cannot be stated as a general characterization of all of the materials from Qumran or from Greek‐speaking Jewish communities of the late Second Temple period.

  • Previous Result
  • Results
  • Look It Up Highlight any word or phrase, then click the button to begin a new search.
  • Highlight On / Off
  • Next Result
Oxford University Press

© 2017. All Rights Reserved. Privacy policy and legal notice