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The Oxford Study Bible Study Bible supplemented with commentary from scholars of various religions.

Chapter 4

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1The man lay with his wife Eve, and she conceived and gave birth to Cain. She said, ‘With the help of the LORD I have brought into being a male child.’ 2Afterwards she had another child, Abel. He tended the flock, and Cain worked the land. 3In due season Cain brought some of the fruits of the earth as an offering to the LORD, 4while Abel brought the choicest of the firstborn of his flock. The LORD regarded Abel and his offering with favour, 5but not Cain and his offering. Cain was furious and he glowered. 6The LORD said to Cain,

‘Why are you angry? Why are you scowling? 7 If you do well, you hold your head up; if not, sin is a demon crouching at the door; it will desire you, and you will be mastered by it a 4:7 and you … it: or but you must master it. .’

8Cain said to his brother Abel, ‘Let us go out into the country b 4:8 Let us … country: so Samar.; Heb. omits. .’ Once there, Cain attacked and murdered his brother. 9The LORD asked Cain, ‘Where is your brother Abel?’ ‘I do not know,’ Cain answered. ‘Am I my brother's keeper?’ 10The LORD said, ‘What have you done? Your brother's blood is crying out to me from the ground. 11Now you are accursed and will be banished from the very ground which has opened its mouth to receive the blood you have shed. 12When you till the ground, it will no longer yield you its produce. You shall be a wanderer, a fugitive on the earth.’ 13Cain said to the LORD, ‘My punishment is heavier than I can bear; 14now you are driving me off the land, and I must hide myself from your presence. I shall be a wanderer, a fugitive on the earth, and I can be killed at sight by anyone.’ 15The LORD answered him, ‘No: if anyone kills Cain, sevenfold vengeance will be exacted from him.’ The LORD put a mark on Cain, so that anyone happening to meet him should not kill him. 16Cain went out from the LORD's presence and settled in the land of Nod c 4:16 Nod: that is Wandering. to the east of Eden.

17Then Cain lay with his wife; and she conceived and gave birth to Enoch. Cain was then building a town which he named Enoch after his son. 18Enoch was the father of Irad, Irad of Mehujael, Mehujael of Methushael, and Methushael of Lamech.

19Lamech married two women, one named Adah, the other Zillah. 20Adah gave birth to Jabal, the ancestor of tent-dwellers who raise flocks and herds. 21His brother's name was Jubal; he was the ancestor of those who play the harp and pipe. 22Zillah, the other wife, bore Tubal-cain, the master of all coppersmiths and blacksmiths, and Tubal-cain's sister was Naamah. 23Lamech said to his wives:

‘Adah and Zillah, listen to me; wives of Lamech, mark what I say: I kill a man for wounding me, a young man for a blow. 24 If sevenfold vengeance was to be exacted for Cain, for Lamech it would be seventy-sevenfold.’

25Adam lay with his wife again. She gave birth to a son, and named him Seth d 4:25 Seth: that is Granted. , ‘for’, she said, ‘God has granted me another son in place of Abel, because Cain killed him’. 26Seth too had a son, whom he named Enosh. At that time people began to invoke the LORD e 4:26 LORD: this represents the Hebrew consonants YHWH; see Introduction, p. 3. by name.

Notes:

a 4:7 and you … it: or but you must master it.

b 4:8 Let us … country: so Samar.; Heb. omits.

c 4:16 Nod: that is Wandering.

d 4:25 Seth: that is Granted.

e 4:26 LORD: this represents the Hebrew consonants YHWH; see Introduction, p. 3.

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